The Revised Penal Codes Act No. 3815

Act No. 3815

The Revised Penal Code

Article 1. Time when Act takes effect. - This Code shall take effect on the first day of January, nineteen hundred and thirty-two.

 

Article 2. Application of its provisions. - Except as provided in the treaties and laws of preferential application, the provisions of this Code shall be enforced not only within the Philippine Archipelago, including its atmosphere, its interior waters and maritime zone, but also outside of its jurisdiction, against those who:
     1. Should commit an offense while on a Philippine ship or airship;
     2. Should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the Philippine Islands or obligations and securities issued by the Government of the Philippine Islands;
     3. Should be liable for acts connected with the introduction into these islands of the obligations and securities mentioned in the preceding number;
     4. While being public officers or employees, should commit an offense in the exercise of their functions; or
     5. Should commit any of the crimes against national security and the law of nations, defined in Title One of Book Two of this Code.

TITLE ONE Felonies and Circumstances which Affect Criminal Liability CHAPTER ONEFelonies

Article 3. Definition. - Acts and omissions punishable by law are felonies (delitos).
    Felonies are committed not only by means of deceit (dolo) but also by means of fault (culpa).
    There is deceit when the act is performed with deliberate intent; and there is fault when the wrongful act results from imprudence, negligence, lack of foresight, or lack of skill.

Article 4. Criminal liability. - Criminal liability shall be incurred:

     1. By any person committing a felony (delito) although the wrongful act done be different from that which he intended.
     2. By any person performing an act which would be an offense against persons or property, were it not for the inherent impossibility of its accomplishment or on account of the employment of inadequate or ineffectual means.

Article 5. Duty of the court in connection with acts which should be repressed but which are not covered by the law, and in cases of excessive penalties. - Whenever a court has knowledge of any act which it may deem proper to repress and which is not punishable by law, it shall render the proper decision, and shall report to the Chief Executive, through the Department of Justice, the reasons which induce the court to believe that said act should be made the subject of penal legislation.

In the same way the court shall submit to the Chief Executive, through the Department of Justice, such statement as may be deemed proper, without suspending the execution of the sentence, when a strict enforcement of the provisions of this Code would result in the imposition of a clearly excessive penalty, taking into consideration the degree of malice and the injury caused by the offense.

Article 6. Consummated, frustrated, and attempted felonies. - Consummated felonies as well as those which are frustrated and attempted, are punishable.

  • A felony is consummated when all the elements necessary for its execution and accomplishment are present; and it is frustrated when the offender performs all the acts of execution which would produce the felony as a consequence but which, nevertheless, do not produce it by reason of causes independent of the will of the perpetrator.
  • There is an attempt when the offender commences the commission of a felony directly by overt acts, and does not perform all the acts of execution which should produce the felony by reason of some cause or accident other than his own spontaneous desistance.

Article 7. When light felonies are punishable. - Light felonies are punishable only when they have been consummated, with the exception of those committed against person or property.

Article 8. Conspiracy and proposal to commit felony. - Conspiracy and proposal to commit felony are punishable only in the cases in which the law specially provides a penalty therefor.

   A conspiracy exists when two or more persons come to an agreement concerning the commission of a felony and decide to commit it.

   There is proposal when the person who has decided to commit a felony proposes its execution to some other person or persons.

Article 9. Grave felonies, less grave felonies and light felonies. - Grave felonies are those to which the law attaches the capital punishment or penalties which in any of their periods are afflictive, in accordance with article 25 of this Code.
    Less grave felonies are those which the law punishes with penalties which in their maximum period are correctional, in accordance with the above-mentioned article.
    Light felonies are those infractions of law for the commission of which the penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos or both, is provided.

Article 10. Offenses not subject to the provisions of this Code. - Offenses which are or in the future may be punishable under special laws are not subject to the provisions of this Code. This Code shall be supplementary to such laws, unless the latter should specially provide the contrary.

CHAPTER TWO Justifying Circumstances and Circumstances which Exempt from Criminal Liabilit

Article 11. Justifying circumstances. - The following do not incur any criminal liability:

     1. Anyone who acts in defense of his person or rights, provided that the following circumstances concur;

  • First. Unlawful aggression;
  • Second. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it;
  • Third. Lack of sufficient provocation on the part of the person defending himself.

     2. Any one who acts in defense of the person or rights of his spouse, ascendants, descendants, or legitimate, natural or adopted brothers or sisters, or of his relatives by affinity in the same degrees, and those by consanguinity within the fourth civil degree, provided that the first and second requisites prescribed in the next preceding circumstance are present, and the further requisite, in case the provocation was given by the person attacked, that the one making defense had no part therein.
     3. Anyone who acts in defense of the person or rights of a stranger, provided that the first and second requisites mentioned in the first circumstance of this article are present and that the person defending be not induced by revenge, resentment, or other evil motive.
     4. Any person who, in order to avoid an evil or injury, does an act which causes damage to another, provided that the following requisites are present;

  • First. That the evil sought to be avoided actual exists;
  • Second. That the injury feared be greater than that done to avoid it;
  • Third. That there be no other practical and less harmful means of preventing it.

     5. Any person who acts in the fulfillment of a duty or in the lawful exercise of a right or office.
     6. Any person who acts in obedience to an order issued by a superior for some lawful purpose.

Article 12. Circumstances which exempt from criminal liability. - The following are exempt from criminal liability:

An imbecile or an insane person, unless the latter has acted during a lucid interval.
When the imbecile or an insane person has committed an act which the law defines as a felony (delito), the court shall order his confinement in one of the hospitals or asylums established for persons thus afflicted, which he shall not be permitted to leave without first obtaining the permission of the same court.
A person under nine years of age.
A person over nine years of age and under fifteen, unless he has acted with discernment, in which case, such minor shall be proceeded against in accordance with the provisions of article 80 of this Code.
  When such minor is adjudged to be criminally irresponsible, the court, in conformity with the provisions of this and the preceding paragraph, shall commit him to the care and custody of his family who shall be charged with his surveillance and education; otherwise, he shall be committed to the care of some institution or person mentioned in said article 80.
Any person who, while performing a lawful act with due care, causes an injury by mere accident without fault or intention of causing it.
Any person who acts under the compulsion of irresistible force.
Any person who acts under the impulse of an uncontrollable fear of an equal or greater injury.
Any person who fails to perform an act required by law, when prevented by some lawful insuperable cause.

CHAPTER THREECircumstances which Mitigate Criminal Liability

Article 13. Mitigating circumstances. - The following are mitigating circumstances:

     1. Those mentioned in the preceding chapter, when all the requisites necessary to justify the act or to exempt from criminal liability in the respective cases are not attendant.
     2. That the offender is under eighteen years of age or over seventy years. In the case of the minor, he shall be proceeded against in accordance with the provisions of article 80.
     3. That the offender had no intention to commit so grave a wrong as that committed.
     4. That sufficient provocation or threat on the part of the offended party immediately preceded the act.
     5. That the act was committed in the immediate vindication of a grave offense to the one committing the felony (delito) his spouse, ascendants, descendants, legitimate, natural or adopted brothers or sisters or relatives by affinity within the same degrees.
     6. That of having acted upon an impulse so powerful as naturally to have produced passion or obfuscation.
     7. That the offender had voluntarily surrendered himself to a person in authority or his agents, or that he had voluntarily confessed his guilt before the court prior to the presentation of the evidence for the prosecution.
     8. That the offender is deaf and dumb, blind or otherwise suffering some physical defect which thus restricts his means of action, defense, or communication with his fellow beings.
     9. Such illness of the offender as would diminish the exercise of the will-power of the offender without however depriving him of consciousness of his acts.
    10. And, finally, any other circumstance of a similar nature and analogous to those above mentioned.

CHAPTER FOUR Circumstances which Aggravate Criminal Liability

Article 14. Aggravating circumstances. - The following are aggravating circumstances:
     1. That advantage be taken by the offender of his public position.
     2. That the crime be committed in contempt of or with insult to the public authorities.
     3. That the act be committed with insult or in disregard of the respect due to the offended party on account of his rank, age, or sex, or that it be committed in the dwelling of the offended party, if the latter has not given provocation.
     4. That the act be committed with abuse of confidence or obvious ungratefulness.
     5. That the crime be committed in the palace of the Chief Executive, or in his presence, or where public authorities are engaged in the discharge of their duties, or in a place dedicated to religious worship.
     6. That the crime be committed in the nighttime, or in an uninhabited place, or by a band, whenever such circumstances may facilitate the commission of the offense.
Whenever more than three armed malefactors shall have acted together in the commission of an offense, it shall be deemed to have been committed by a band.
     7. That the crime be committed on the occasion of a conflagration, shipwreck, earthquake, epidemic, or other calamity or misfortune.
     8. That the crime be committed with the aid of armed men or persons who insure or afford impunity.
     9. That the accused is a recidivist.
A recidivist is one who, at the time of his trial for one crime, shall have been previously convicted by final judgment of another crime embraced in the same title of this Code.
     10. That the offender has been previously punished for an offense to which the law attaches an equal or greater penalty or for two or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty.
     11. That the crime be committed in consideration of a price, reward, or promise.
     12. That the crime be committed by means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, stranding of a vessel or intentional damage thereto, derailment of a locomotive, or by the use of any other artifice involving great waste and ruin.
     13. That the act be committed with evident premeditation.
     14. That craft, fraud, or disguise be employed.
     15. That advantage be taken of superior strength, or means be employed to weaken the defense.
     16. That the act be committed with treachery (alevosia).
There is treachery when the offender commits any of the crimes against the person, employing means, methods, or forms in the execution thereof which tend directly and specially to insure its execution, without risk to himself arising from the defense which the offended party might make.
     17. That means be employed or circumstances brought about which add ignominy to the natural effects of the act.
     18. That the crime be committed after an unlawful entry.
There is an unlawful entry when an entrance is effected by a way not intended for the purpose.
     19. That as a means to the commission of a crime a wall, roof, floor, door, or window be broken.
     20. That the crime be committed with the aid of persons under fifteen years of age or by means of motor vehicles, motorized watercraft, airships, or other similar means. (As amended by Rep. Act No. 5438, approved Sept. 9, 1968.)
     21. That the wrong done in the commission of the crime be deliberately augmented by causing other wrong not necessary for its commission.

CHAPTER FIVEAlternative Circumstances

 Article 15. Their concept. - Alternative circumstances are those which must be taken into consideration as aggravating or mitigating according to the nature and effects of the crime and the other conditions attending its commission. They are the relationship, intoxication and the degree of instruction and education of the offender.

  • The alternative circumstance of relationship shall be taken into consideration when the offended party is the spouse, ascendant, descendant, legitimate, natural, or adopted brother or sister, or relative by affinity in the same degrees of the offender.
  • The intoxication of the offender shall be taken into consideration as a mitigating circumstance when the offender has committed a felony in a state of intoxication, if the same is not habitual or subsequent to the plan to commit said felony; but when the intoxication is habitual or intentional, it shall be considered as an aggravating circumstance.

TITLE TWOPersons Criminally Liable for Felonies

Article 16. Who are criminally liable. - The following are criminally liable for grave and less grave felonies:

     1. Who are criminally liable. - The following are criminally liable for grave and less grave felonies:

  • Principals.
  • Accomplices.
  • Accessories.

The following are criminally liable for light felonies:

  • Principals
  • Accomplices.

Article 17. Principals. - The following are considered principals:

     1. Those who take a direct part in the execution of the act;
     2. Those who directly force or induce others to commit it;
     3. Those who cooperate in the commission of the offense by another act without which it would not have been accomplished.

Article 18. Accomplices. - Accomplices are those persons who, not being included in article 17, cooperate in the execution of the offense by previous or simultaneous acts.

Article 19. Accessories. - Accessories are those who, having knowledge of the commission of the crime, and without having participated therein, either as principals or accomplices, take part subsequent to its commission in any of the following manners:
     1. By profiting themselves or assisting the offender to profit by the effects of the crime.
     2. By concealing or destroying the body of the crime, or the effects or instruments thereof, in order to prevent its discovery.
     3. By harboring, concealing, or assisting in the escape of the principal of the crime, provided the accessory acts with abuse of his public functions or whenever the author of the crime is guilty of treason, parricide, murder, or an attempt to take the life of the Chief Executive, or is known to be habitually guilty of some other crime.

Article 20. Accessories who are exempt from criminal liability. - The penalties prescribed for accessories shall not be imposed upon those who are such with respect to their spouses, ascendants, descendants, legitimate, natural, and adopted brothers and sisters, or relatives by affinity within the same degrees, with the single exception of accessories falling within the provisions of paragraph 1 of the next preceding article.

TITLE THREE Penalties CHAPTER ONE Penalties in General
Article 21. Penalties that may be imposed. - No felony shall be punishable by any penalty not prescribed by law prior to its commission.

Article 22. Retroactive effect of penal laws. - Penal laws shall have a retroactive effect insofar as they favor the person guilty of a felony, who is not a habitual criminal, as this term is defined in rule 5 of article 62 of this Code, although at the time of the publication of such laws a final sentence has been pronounced and the convict is serving the same.

Article 23. Effect of pardon by the offended party. - A pardon by the offended party does not extinguish criminal action except as provided in article 344 of this Code; but civil liability with regard to the interest of the injured party is extinguished by his express waiver. (Read also Art. 36)

Article 24. Measures of prevention or safety which are not considered penalties. - The following shall not be considered as penalties:

     1. The arrest and temporary detention of accused persons, as well as their detention by reason of insanity or imbecility, or illness requiring their confinement in a hospital.
     2. The commitment of a minor to any of the institutions mentioned in article 80 and for the purposes specified therein.
     3. Suspension from the employment or public office during the trial or in order to institute proceedings.
     4. Fines and other corrective measures which, in the exercise of their administrative disciplinary powers, superior officials may impose upon their subordinates.
     5. Deprivation of rights and reparations which the civil law may establish in penal form.

CHAPTER TWOClassification of Penalties

Article 25. Penalties which may be imposed. - The penalties which may be imposed according to this Code, and their different classes, are those included in the following:

                             Scale

Principal Penalties Capital punishment:

  • Death.

Afflictive penalties:

  • Reclusion perpetua,
  • Reclusion temporal,
  • Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification,
  • Perpetual or temporary special disqualification,
  • Prision mayor.

Correctional penalties:

  • Prision correccional,
  • Arresto mayor,
  • Suspension,
  • Destierro.

Light penalties:

  • Arresto menor,
  • Public censure.

Penalties common to the three preceding classes:

  • Fine, and
  • Bond to keep the peace.

                                                                                  Accessory Penalties

  • Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification,
  • Perpetual or temporary special disqualification,
  • Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the profession or calling.
  • Civil interdiction,
  • Indemnification,
  • Forfeiture or confiscation of instruments and proceeds of the offense,
  • Payment of costs.

Article 26. Fine - When afflictive, correctional, or light penalty. - A fine, whether imposed as a single or as an alternative penalty, shall be considered an afflictive penalty, if it exceeds 6,000 pesos; a correctional penalty, if it does not exceed 6,000 pesos but is not less than 200 pesos; and a light penalty if it be less than 200 pesos.

CHAPTER THREEDuration and Effect of Penalties

SECTION 1Duration of penalties

Article 27. Reclusion perpetua. - The penalty of reclusion perpetua shall be from twenty years and one day to forty years.

  • Reclusion temporal. - The penalty of reclusion temporal shall be from twelve years and one day to twenty years.
  • Prision mayor and temporary disqualification. - The duration of the penalties of prision mayor and temporary disqualification shall be from six years and one day to twelve years, except when the penalty of disqualification is imposed as an accessory penalty, in which case, its duration shall be that of the principal penalty.
  • Prision correccional, suspension, and destierro. - The duration of the penalties of prision correccional, suspension and destierro shall be from six months and one day to six years, except when suspension is imposed as an accessory penalty, in which case, its duration shall be that of the principal penalty.
  • Arresto mayor. - The duration of the penalty or arresto mayor shall be from one month and one day to six months.
  • Arresto menor. - The duration of the penalty of arresto menor shall be from one day to thirty days.
  • Bond to keep the peace. - The bond to keep the peace shall be required to cover such period of time as the court may determine. (As amended by Section 21, Republic Act No. 7659.)

Article 28. Computation of penalties. - If the offender shall be in prison, the term of the duration of the temporary penalties shall be computed from the day on which the judgment of conviction shall have become final.

If the offender be not in prison, the term of the duration of the penalty consisting of deprivation of liberty shall be computed from the day that the offender is placed at the disposal of the judicial authorities for the enforcement of the penalty. The duration of the other penalties shall be computed only from the day on which the defendant commences to serve his sentence.

 

Article 29. Period of preventive imprisonment deducted from term of imprisonment. - Offenders or accused who have undergone preventive imprisonment shall be credited in the service of their sentence consisting of deprivation of liberty, with the full time during which they have undergone preventive imprisonment if the detention prisoner agrees voluntarily in writing to abide by the same disciplinary rules imposed upon convicted prisoners, except in the following cases:

    1. When they are recidivists, or have been convicted previously twice or more times of any crime; and

    2. When upon being summoned for the execution of their sentence they have failed to surrender voluntarily.

If the detention prisoner does not agree to abide by the same disciplinary rules imposed upon convicted prisoners, he shall be credited in the service of his sentence with four-fifths of the time during which he has undergone preventive imprisonment. (As amended by Republic Act No. 6127, June 17, 1970).

Whenever an accused has undergone preventive imprisonment for a period equal to or more than the possible maximum imprisonment of the offense charged to which he may be sentenced and his case is not yet terminated, he shall be released immediately without prejudice to the continuation of the trial thereof or the proceeding on appeal, if the same is under review. In case the maximum penalty to which the accused may be sentenced is destierro, he shall be released after thirty (30) days of preventive imprisonment. (As amended by Republic Act No. 6127, and further amended by E.O. No. 214, prom. July 10, 1987.)

 

SECTION 2 Effects of the penalties according to their respective nature

 

Article 30. Effects of the penalties of perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification. - The penalties of perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification for public office shall produce the following effects:

   1. The deprivation of the public offices and employments which the offender may have held even if conferred by popular election. 

   2. The deprivation of the right to vote in any election for any popular elective office or to be elected to such office.

   3. The disqualification for the offices or public employments and for the exercise of any of the rights mentioned.

In case of temporary disqualification, such disqualification as is comprised in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article shall last during the term of the sentence.

   4. The loss of all rights to retirement pay or other pension for any office formerly held.

 

Article 31. Effect of the penalties of perpetual or temporary special disqualification. - The penalties of perpetual or temporary special disqualification for public office, profession or calling shall produce the following effects:

    1. The deprivation of the office, employment, profession or calling affected;
    2. The disqualification for holding similar offices or employments either perpetually or during the term of the sentence, according to the extent of such disqualification.

 

Article 32. Effects of the penalties of perpetual or temporary special disqualification for the exercise of the right of suffrage. - The perpetual or temporary special disqualification for the exercise of the right of suffrage shall deprive the offender perpetually or during the term of the sentence, according to the nature of said penalty, of the right to vote in any popular election for any public office or to be elected to such office. Moreover, the offender shall not be permitted to hold any public office during the period of his disqualification.

 

Article 33. Effects of the penalties of suspension from any public office, profession or calling, or the right of suffrage. - The suspension from public office, profession or calling, and the exercise of the right of suffrage shall disqualify the offender from holding such office or exercising such profession or calling or right of suffrage during the term of the sentence.
 The person suspended from holding public office shall not hold another having similar functions during the period of his suspension.

 

Article 34. Civil interdiction. - Civil interdiction shall deprive the offender during the time of his sentence of the rights of parental authority, or guardianship, either as to the person or property of any ward, of marital authority, of the right to manage his property and of the right to dispose of such property by any act or any conveyance inter vivos.

 

Article 35. Effects of bond to keep the peace. - It shall be the duty of any person sentenced to give bond to keep the peace, to present two sufficient sureties who shall undertake that such person will not commit the offense sought to be prevented, and that in case such offense be committed they will pay the amount determined by the court in its judgment, or otherwise to deposit such amount in the office of the clerk of the court to guarantee said undertaking.

The court shall determine, according to its discretion, the period of duration of the bond. (Read also Art. 284)

Should the person sentenced fail to give the bond as required he shall be detained for a period which shall in no case exceed six months, if he shall have prosecuted for a grave or less grave felony, and shall not exceed thirty days, if for a light felony.

 

Article 36. Pardon; its effect. - A pardon shall not work the restoration of the right to hold public office, or the right of suffrage, unless such rights be expressly restored by the terms of the pardon.

A pardon shall in no case exempt the culprit from the payment of the civil indemnity imposed upon him by the sentence.

 

Article 37. Cost. - What are included. - Costs shall include fees and indemnities in the course of the judicial proceedings, whether they be fixed or unalterable amounts previously determined by law or regulations in force, or amounts not subject to schedule.

 

Article 38. Pecuniary liabilities. - Order of payment. - In case the property of the offender should not be sufficient for the payment of all his pecuniary liabilities, the same shall be met in the following order:
     1. The reparation of the damage caused.
     2. Indemnification of consequential damages.
     3. The fine.
     4. The costs of the proceedings.

Article 39. Subsidiary penalty. - If the convict has no property with which to meet the fine mentioned in paragraph 3 of the next preceding article, he shall be subject to a subsidiary personal liability at the rate of one day for each eight pesos, subject to the following rules:

     1. If the principal penalty imposed be prision correccional or arresto and fine, he shall remain under confinement until his fine referred in the preceding paragraph is satisfied, but his subsidiary imprisonment shall not exceed one-third of the term of the sentence, and in no case shall it continue for more than one year, and no fraction or part of a day shall be counted against the prisoner.
     2. When the principal penalty imposed be only a fine, the subsidiary imprisonment shall not exceed six months, if the culprit shall have been prosecuted for a grave or less grave felony, and shall not exceed fifteen days, if for a light felony.
     3. When the principal penalty imposed is higher than prision correccional no subsidiary imprisonment shall be imposed upon the culprit.
     4. If the principal penalty imposed is not to be executed by confinement in a penal institution, but such penalty is of fixed duration, the convict, during the period of time established in the preceding rules, shall continue to suffer the same deprivation as those of which the principal penalty consists.
     5. The subsidiary personal liability which the convict may have suffered by reason of his insolvency shall not relieve him from the fine in case his financial circumstances should improve. (As amended by Republic Act No. 5465, April 21, 1969.)

SECTION 3 Penalties in which other accessory penalties are inherent

Article 40. Death - Its accessory penalties. - The death penalty, when it is not executed by reason of commutation or pardon shall carry with it that of perpetual absolute disqualification and that of civil interdiction during thirty years following the date of sentence, unless such accessory penalties have been expressly remitted in the pardon.

 

Article 41. Reclusion perpetua and reclusion temporal. - Their accessory penalties. - The penalties of reclusion perpetua and reclusion temporal shall carry with them that of civil interdiction for life or during the period of the sentence as the case may be, and that of perpetual absolute disqualification which the offender shall suffer even though pardoned as to the principal penalty, unless the same shall have been expressly remitted in the pardon.

 

Article 42. Prision mayor - Its accessory penalties. - The penalty of prision mayor shall carry with it that of temporary absolute disqualification and that of perpetual special disqualification from the right of suffrage which the offender shall suffer although pardoned as to the principal penalty, unless the same shall have been expressly remitted in the pardon.

 

Article 43. Prision correccional - Its accessory penalties. - The penalty of prision correccional shall carry with it that of suspension from public office, from the right to follow a profession or calling, and that of perpetual special disqualification from the right of suffrage, if the duration of said imprisonment shall exceed eighteen months. The offender shall suffer the disqualification provided in this article although pardoned as to the principal penalty, unless the same shall have been expressly remitted in the pardon.

 

Article 44. Arresto - Its accessory penalties. - The penalty of arresto shall carry with it that of suspension of the right to hold office and the right of suffrage during the term of the sentence.

 

Article 45. Confiscation and forfeiture of the proceeds or instruments of the crime. - Every penalty imposed for the commission of a felony shall carry with it the forfeiture of the proceeds of the crime and the instruments or tools with which it was committed.

Such proceeds and instruments or tools shall be confiscated and forfeited in favor of the Government, unless they be the property of a third person not liable for the offense, but those articles which are not subject of lawful commerce shall be destroyed.

CHAPTER FOUR Application of Penalties

SECTION 1 Rules for the application of penalties to the persons

Article 46.Penalty to be imposed upon principals in general. - The penalty prescribed by law for the commission of a felony shall be imposed upon the principals in the commission of such felony.(Read also Arts. 50 -51) Whenever the law prescribes a penalty for a felony in general terms, it shall be understood as applicable to the consummated felony.

 

Article 47. In what cases the death penalty shall not be imposed; Automatic review of death penalty cases. - The death penalty shall be imposed in all cases in which it must be imposed under existing laws, except when the guilty person is below eighteen (18) years of age at the time of the commission of the crime or is more than seventy years of age or when upon appeal or automatic review of the case by the Supreme Court, the required majority vote is not obtained for the imposition of the death penalty, in which cases the penalty shall be reclusion perpetua. In all cases where the death penalty is imposed by the trial court, the records shall be forwarded to the Supreme Court for automatic review and judgment by the court en banc, within twenty (20) days but not earlier than fifteen (15) days after the promulgation of the judgment or notice of denial of any motion for new trial or reconsideration. The transcript shall also be forwarded within ten (10) days after the filing thereof by the stenographic reporter. (As amended by Section 22, Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

Article 48. Penalty for complex crimes. - When a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave felonies, or when an offense is a necessary means for committing the other, the penalty for the most serious crime shall be imposed, the same to be applied in its maximum period.(As amended by Act No. 4000.)

 

Article 49. Penalty to be imposed upon the principals when the crime committed is different from that intended. - In cases in which the felony committed is different from that which the offender intended to commit, the following rules shall be observed:

     1. If the penalty prescribed for the felony committed be higher than that corresponding to the offense which the accused intended to commit, the penalty corresponding to the latter shall be imposed in its maximum period.

     2. If the penalty prescribed for the felony committed be lower than that corresponding to the one which the accused intended to commit, the penalty for the former shall be imposed in its maximum period.

     3. The rule established by the next preceding paragraph shall not be applicable if the acts committed by the guilty person shall also constitute an attempt or frustration of another crime, if the law prescribes a higher penalty for either of the latter offenses, in which case the penalty provided for the attempted or the frustrated crime shall be imposed in its maximum period.(Read also Arts. 61, 62, and 65)

Article 50. Penalty to be imposed upon principals of a frustrated crime. - The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the consummated felony shall be imposed upon the principal in a frustrated felony.

 

Article 51. Penalty to be imposed upon principals of attempted crimes. - The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the consummated felony shall be imposed upon the principals in an attempt to commit a felony.

 

Article 52. Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices in a consummated crime. - The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the consummated felony shall be imposed upon the accomplices in the commission of a consummated felony.

 

Article 53. Penalty to be imposed upon accessories to the commission of a consummated felony. - The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the consummated felony shall be imposed upon the accessories to the commission of a consummated felony.

 

Article 54. Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices in a frustrated crime. - The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the frustrated felony shall be imposed upon the accessories in the commission of a frustrated felony.

 

Article 55. Penalty to be imposed upon accessories of a frustrated crime. - The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the frustrated felony shall be imposed upon the accessories to the commission of a frustrated felony.

 

Article 56. Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices in an attempted crime. - The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for an attempt to commit a felony shall be imposed upon the accomplices in an attempt to commit the felony.

 

Article 57. Penalty to be imposed upon accessories of an attempted crime. - The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the attempt shall be imposed upon the accessories to the attempt to commit a felony.

Article 58. Additional penalty to be imposed upon certain accessories. - Those accessories falling within the terms of paragraph 3 of article 19 of this Code who should act with abuse of their public functions, shall suffer the additional penalty of absolute perpetual disqualification if the principal offender shall be guilty of a grave felony, and that of absolute temporary disqualification if he shall be guilty of a less grave felony.

 

Article 59. Penalty to be imposed in case of failure to commit the crime because the means employed or the aims sought are impossible. - When the person intending to commit an offense has already performed the acts for the execution of the same but nevertheless the crime was not produced by reason of the fact that the act intended was by its nature one of impossible accomplishment or because the means employed by such person are essentially inadequate to produce the result desired by him, the court, having in mind the social danger and the degree of criminality shown by the offender, shall impose upon him the penalty of arresto mayor or a fine from 200 to 500 pesos.

 

Article 60. Exceptions to the rules established in articles 50 to 57. - The provisions contained in articles 50 to 57, inclusive, of this Code shall not be applicable to cases in which the law expressly prescribes the penalty provided for a frustrated or attempted felony, or to be imposed upon accomplices or accessories.

 

Article 61. Rules for graduating penalties. - For the purpose of graduating the penalties which, according to the provisions of articles 50 to 57, inclusive, of this Code, are to be imposed upon persons guilty as principals of any frustrated or attempted felony, or as accomplices or accessories, the following rules shall be observed:

1. When the penalty prescribed for the felony is single and indivisible, the penalty next lower in degree shall be that immediately following that indivisible penalty in the respective graduated scale prescribed in article 71 of this Code.

2. When the penalty prescribed for the crime is composed of two indivisible penalties, or of one or more divisible penalties to be imposed to their full extent, the penalty next lower in degree shall be that immediately following the lesser of the penalties prescribed in the respective graduated scale.

3. When the penalty prescribed for the crime is composed of one or two indivisible penalties and the maximum period of another divisible penalty, the penalty next lower in degree shall be composed of the medium and minimum periods of the proper divisible penalty and the maximum period of that immediately following in said respective graduated scale.

4. When the penalty prescribed for the crime is composed of several periods, corresponding to different divisible penalties, the penalty next lower in degree shall be composed of the period immediately following the minimum prescribed and of the two next following, which shall be taken from the penalty prescribed, if possible; otherwise from the penalty immediately following in the above mentioned respective graduated scale.

5. When the law prescribes a penalty for a crime in some manner not especially provided for in the four preceding rules, the courts, proceeding by analogy, shall impose corresponding penalties upon those guilty as principals of the frustrated felony, or of attempt to commit the same, and upon accomplices and accessories.(As amended by Com. Act No. 217.)

 

TABULATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE CHAPTER

 

Penalty Prescribe for the crime

Penalty to be imposed upon the principal in a frustrated crime, and accomplice in a consummated crime

Penalty to be imposed upon the principal in an attempted crime, the accessory in the consummated crime and the accomplices in a frustrated crime.

Penalty to be imposed upon the accessory in a frustrated crime, and the accomplices in an attempted crime

Penalty to be imposed upon the accessory in an attempted crime

First Case

Death

Reclusion Perpetua

Reclusion Temporal

Prision Mayor

Prision Correccional

Second Case

Reclusion Perpetua to Death

Reclusion Temporal

Prision Mayor

Prision Correccional

Arresto Mayor

Third Case

Reclusion Temporal in its maximum period to death

Prision Mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its medium period

Prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its medium period

Arresto Mayor in it s maximum period to prision correccional in its medium period

Fine and Arresto Mayor in its minimum and medium periods

Fourth Case

Prision Mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its medium period.

Prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its medium period.

Arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its medium period.

Fine and Arresto Mayor in its minimum and medium periods

Fine.

SECTION 2 Rules for the application of penalties with regard to the mitigating and aggravating circumstances, and habitual delinquency

Article 62. Effects of the attendance of mitigating or aggravating circumstances and of habitual delinquency. - Mitigating or aggravating circumstances and habitual delinquency shall be taken into account for the purpose of diminishing or increasing the penalty in conformity with the following rules:

     1. Aggravating circumstances which in themselves constitute a crime specially punishable by law or which are included by the law in defining a crime and prescribing the penalty therefor shall not be taken into account for the purpose of increasing the penalty.

  •    1(a). When in the commission of the crime, advantage was taken by the offender of his public position, the penalty to be imposed shall be in its maximum regardless of mitigating circumstances.
  • The maximum penalty shall be imposed if the offense was committed by any person who belongs to an organized/syndicated crime group.
  • An organized/syndicated crime group means a group of two or more persons collaborating, confederating or mutually helping one another for purposes of gain in the commission of any crime.
    2. The same rule shall apply with respect to any aggravating circumstances inherent in the crime to such a degree that it must be necessity accompany the commission thereof.
    3. Aggravating or mitigating circumstances which arise from the moral attributes of the offender, or from his private relations with the offended party, or from any other personal cause, shall only serve to aggravate or mitigate the liability of the principals, accomplices and accessories as to whom such circumstances are attendant.
    4. The circumstances which consist in the material execution of the act, or in the means employed to accomplish it, shall serve to aggravate or mitigate the liability of those persons only who had knowledge of them at the time of the execution of the act or their cooperation therein.
    5. Habitual delinquency shall have the following effects:
  • (a) Upon a third conviction the culprit shall be sentenced to the penalty provided by law for the last crime of which he be found guilty and to the additional penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.
  • (b) Upon a fourth conviction, the culprit shall be sentenced to the penalty provided for the last crime of which he be found guilty and to the additional penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods; and
  • (c) Upon a fifth or additional conviction, the culprit shall be sentenced to the penalty provided for the last crime of which he be found guilty and to the additional penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its minimum period.
  • Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, the total of the two penalties to be imposed upon the offender, in conformity herewith, shall in no case exceed 30 years.
  • For the purpose of this article, a person shall be deemed to be habitual delinquent, if within a period of ten years from the date of his release or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robo, hurto estafa or falsification, he is found guilty of any of said crimes a third time or oftener. (As amended by Section 23, Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

Article 63. Rules for the application of indivisible penalties. - In all cases in which the law prescribes a single indivisible penalty, it shall be applied by the courts regardless of any mitigating or aggravating circumstances that may have attended the commission of the deed.
   In all cases in which the law prescribes a penalty composed of two indivisible penalties, the following rules shall be observed in the application thereof:

    1. When in the commission of the deed there is present only one aggravating circumstance, the greater penalty shall be applied.
    2. When there are neither mitigating nor aggravating circumstances in the commission of the deed, the lesser penalty shall be applied.
    3. When the commission of the act is attended by some mitigating circumstance and there is no aggravating circumstance, the lesser penalty shall be applied.
    4. When both mitigating and aggravating circumstances attended the commission of the act, the courts shall reasonably allow them to offset one another in consideration of their number and importance, for the purpose of applying the penalty in accordance with the preceding rules, according to the result of such compensation.
 

Article 64. Rules for the application of penalties which contain three periods. - In cases in which the penalties prescribed by law contain three periods, whether it be a single divisible penalty or composed of three different penalties, each one of which forms a period in accordance with the provisions of articles 76 and 77, the courts shall observe for the application of the penalty the following rules, according to whether there are or are no mitigating or aggravating circumstances:

    1. When there are neither aggravating nor mitigating circumstances, they shall impose the penalty prescribed by law in its medium period.
    2. When only a mitigating circumstance is present in the commission of the act, they shall impose the penalty in its minimum period.
    3. When only an aggravating circumstance is present in the commission of the act, they shall impose the penalty in its maximum period.
    4. When both mitigating and aggravating circumstances are present, the court shall reasonably offset those of one class against the other according to their relative weight.
    5. When there are two or more mitigating circumstances and no aggravating circumstances are present, the court shall impose the penalty next lower to that prescribed by law, in the period that it may deem applicable, according to the number and nature of such circumstances.
   6. Whatever may be the number and nature of the aggravating circumstances, the courts shall not impose a greater penalty than that prescribed by law, in its maximum period.
    7. Within the limits of each period, the courts shall determine the extent of the penalty according to the number and nature of the aggravating and mitigating circumstances and the greater or lesser extent of the evil produced by the crime.
 

Article 65. Rule in cases in which the penalty is not composed of three periods. - In cases in which the penalty prescribed by law is not composed of three periods, the courts shall apply the rules contained in the foregoing articles, dividing into three equal portions of time included in the penalty prescribed, and forming one period of each of the three portions.
 

Article 66. Imposition of fines. - In imposing fines the courts may fix any amount within the limits established by law; in fixing the amount in each case attention shall be given, not only to the mitigating and aggravating circumstances, but more particularly to the wealth or means of the culprit.
 

Article 67. Penalty to be imposed when not all the requisites of exemption of the fourth circumstance of article 12 are present.- When all the conditions required in circumstance number 4 of article 12 of this Code to exempt from criminal liability are not present, the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon the culprit if he shall have been guilty of a grave felony, and arresto mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if of a less grave felony.

 

Article 68. Penalty to be imposed upon a person under eighteen years of age. - When the offender is a minor under eighteen years and his case is one coming under the provisions of the paragraph next to the last of article 80 of this Code, the following rules shall be observed:

  • 1. Upon a person under fifteen but over nine years of age, who is not exempted from liability by reason of the court having declared that he acted with discernment, a discretionary penalty shall be imposed, but always lower by two degrees at least than that prescribed by law for the crime which he committed.
  • 2. Upon a person over fifteen and under eighteen years of age the penalty next lower than that prescribed by law shall be imposed, but always in the proper period.

Article 69. Penalty to be imposed when the crime committed is not wholly excusable. - A penalty lower by one or two degrees than that prescribed by law shall be imposed if the deed is not wholly excusable by reason of the lack of some of the conditions required to justify the same or to exempt from criminal liability in the several cases mentioned in article 11 and 12, provided that the majority of such conditions be present. The courts shall impose the penalty in the period which may be deemed proper, in view of the number and nature of the conditions of exemption present or lacking.

Article 70. Successive service of sentences.- When the culprit has to serve two or more penalties, he shall serve them simultaneously if the nature of the penalties will so permit; otherwise, the following rules shall be observed:

In the imposition of the penalties, the order of their respective severity shall be followed so that they may be executed successively or as nearly as may be possible, should a pardon have been granted as to the penalty or penalties first imposed, or should they have been served out.

For the purpose of applying the provisions of the next preceding paragraph the respective severity of the penalties shall be determined in accordance with the following scale:

1. Death,
2. Reclusion perpetua,
3. Reclusion temporal,
4. Prision mayor,
5. Prision correccional,
6. Arresto mayor,
7. Arresto menor,
8. Destierro,
9. Perpetual absolute disqualification,
10 Temporary absolute disqualification.
11. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the right to follow a profession or calling, and
12. Public censure.

  • Not with standing the provisions of the rule next preceding, the maximum duration of the convict's sentence shall not be more than threefold the length of time corresponding to the mostsevere of the penalties imposed upon him. No other penalty to which he may be liable shall be inflicted after the sum total of those imposed equals the same maximum period.
  • Such maximum period shall in no case exceed forty years.
  • In applying the provisions of this rule the duration of perpetual penalties (penal perpetua) shall be computed at thirty years.(As amended by Com. Act No. 217.)

Article 71. Graduated scales. - In the cases in which the law prescribes a penalty lower or higher by one or more degrees than another given penalty, the rules prescribed in article 61 shall be observed in graduating such penalty

  • The lower or higher penalty shall be taken from the graduated scale in which is comprised the given penalty.
  • The courts, in applying such lower or higher penalty, shall observe the following graduated scales:

                          SCALE NO. 1

  •  1. Death,
  • 2. Reclusion perpetua,
  • 3. Reclusion temporal,
  • 4. Prision mayor,
  • 5. Prision correccional,
  • 6. Arresto mayor,
  • 7. Destierro,
  • 8. Arresto menor,
  • 9. Public censure,
  • 10. Fine.

                       SCALE NO. 2

  • 1. Perpetual absolute disqualification,
  • 2. Temporary absolute disqualification
  • 3. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the right to follow a profession or calling,
  • 4. Public censure ,
  • 5. Fine.

 

Article 72. Preference in the payment of the civil liabilities. - The civil liabilities of a person found guilty of two or more offenses shall be satisfied by following the chronological order of the dates of the final judgments rendered against him, beginning with the first in order of time.

 

SECTION 3 Provision common to the last two preceding sections

 

Article 74. Penalty higher than reclusion perpetua in certain cases. - In cases in which the law prescribes a penalty higher than another given penalty, without specifically designating the name of the former, if such higher penalty should be that of death, the same penalty and the accessory penalties of article 40, shall be considered as the next higher penalty.

 

Article 75. Increasing or reducing the penalty of fine by one or more degrees. - Whenever it may be necessary to increase or reduce the penalty of fine by one or more degrees, it shall be increased or reduced, respectively, for each degree, by one-fourth of the maximum amount prescribed by law, without, however, changing the minimum.

The same rules shall be observed with regard to fines that do not consist of a fixed amount, but are made proportional.

 

Article 76. Legal period of duration of divisible penalties. - The legal period of duration of divisible penalties shall be considered as divided into three parts, forming three periods, the minimum, the medium, and the maximum in the manner shown in the following table:

 

                                       TABLE SHOWING THE DURATION OF DIVISIBLE PENALTIES AND THE TIME INCLUDED IN EACH OF THEIR PERIODS

Penalties

Time included in the penalty in its entirety

Time included in its minimum period

Time included in its medium period

Time included in its maximum

Reclusion temporal

From 12 years and 1 day to 20 years.

From 12 years and 1 day to 14 years and 8 months.

From 14 years, 8 months and 1 day to 17 years and 4 months.

From 17 years, 4 months and 1 day to 20 years.

Prision mayor, absolute disqualification and special temporary disqualification

From 6 years and 1 day to 12 years.

From 6 years and 1 day to 8 years.

From 8 years and 1 day to 10 years.

From 10 years and 1 day to 12 years.

Prision correccional, suspension and destierro

From 6 months and 1 day to 6 years.

From 6 months and 1 day to 2 years and 4 months.

From 2 years, 4 months and 1 day to 4 years and 2 months.

From 4 years, 2 months and 1 day to 6 years.

Arresto mayor

From 1 month and 1 day to months.

From 1 to 2 months.

From 2 months and 1 day to 4 months.

From 4 months and 1 day to 6 months.

Arresto menor

From 1 to 30 days.

From 1 to 10 days. From 11 to 20 days.

From 21 to 30 days.

Article 77. When the penalty is a complex one composed of three distinct penalties. - In cases in which the law prescribes a penalty composed of three distinct penalties, each one shall form a period; the lightest of them shall be the minimum, the next the medium, and the most severe the maximum period.

Whenever the penalty prescribed does not have one of the forms specially provided for in this Code, the periods shall be distributed, applying for analogy the prescribed rules.

CHAPTER FIVE Execution and Service of Penalties
SECTION 1 General Provisions

Article 78. When and how a penalty is to be executed. - No penalty shall be executed except by virtue of a final judgment.

  • A penalty shall not be executed in any other form than that prescribed by law, nor with any other circumstances or incidents than those expressly authorized thereby.
  • In addition to the provisions of the law, the special regulations prescribed for the government of the institutions in which the penalties are to be suffered shall be observed with regard to the character of the work to be performed, the time of its performance, and other incidents connected therewith, the relations of the convicts among themselves and other persons, the relief which they may receive, and their diet.
  • The regulations shall make provision for the separation of the sexes in different institutions, or at least into different departments, and also for the correction and reform of the convicts.

     

Article 79. Suspension of the execution and service of the penalties in case of insanity. - When a convict shall become insane or an imbecile after final sentence has been pronounced, the execution of said sentence shall be suspended only with regard to the personal penalty, the provisions of the second paragraph of circumstance number 1 of article 12 being observed in the corresponding cases.

If  at any time the convict shall recover his reason, his sentence shall be executed, unless the penalty shall have prescribed in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

The respective provisions of this section shall also be observed if the insanity or imbecility occurs while the convict is serving his sentence. 

 

Article 80. Suspension of sentence of minor delinquents. - Whenever a minor of either sex, under sixteen years of age at the date of the commission of a grave or less grave felony, is accused thereof, the court, after hearing the evidence in the proper proceedings, instead of pronouncing judgment of conviction, shall suspend all further proceedings and shall commit such minor to the custody or care of a public or private, benevolent or charitable institution, established under the law for the care, correction or education of orphaned, homeless, defective, and delinquent children, or to the custody or care of any other responsible person in any other place subject to visitation and supervision by the Director of Public Welfare or any of his agents or representatives, if there be any, or otherwise by the superintendent of public schools or his representatives, subject to such conditions as are prescribed hereinbelow until such minor shall have reached his majority or for such less period as the court may deem proper.(As amended by Republic Act No. 47.)

  • The court, in committing said minor as provided above, shall take into consideration the religion of such minor, his parents or next of kin, in order to avoid his commitment to any private institution not under the control and supervision of the religious sect or denomination to which they belong.
  • The Director of Public Welfare or his duly authorized representatives or agents, the superintendent of public schools or his representatives, or the person to whose custody or care the minor has been committed, shall submit to the court every four months and as often as required in special cases, a written report on the good or bad  conduct of said minor and the moral and intellectual progress made by him.
  • The suspension of the proceedings against a minor may be extended or shortened by the court on the recommendation of the Director of Public Welfare or his authorized representatives or agents, or the superintendent of public schools or his representatives, according as to whether the conduct of such minor has been good or not and whether he has complied with the conditions imposed upon him, or not. The provisions of the first paragraph of this article shall not, however, be affected by those contained herein.
  • If the minor has been committed to the custody or care of any of the institutions mentioned in the first paragraph of this article, with the approval of the Director of Public Welfare and subject to such conditions as this official in accordance with law may deem proper to impose, such minor may be allowed to stay elsewhere under the care of a responsible person.
  • If the minor has behaved properly and has complied with the conditions imposed upon him during his confinement, in accordance with the provisions of this article, he shall be returned to the court in order that the same may order his final release.
  • In case the minor fails to behave properly or to comply with the regulations of the institution to which he has been committed or with the conditions imposed upon him when he was committed to the care of a responsible person, or in case he should be found incorrigible or his continued stay in such institution should be inadvisable, he shall be returned to the court in order that the same may render the judgment corresponding to the crime committed by him.
  • The expenses for the maintenance of a minor delinquent confined in the institution to which he has been committed, shall be borne totally or partially by his parents or relatives or those persons liable to support him, if they are able to do so, in the discretion of the court: Provided, That in case his parents or relatives or those persons liable to support him have not been ordered to pay said expenses or are found indigent and cannot pay said expenses, the municipality in which the offense was committed shall pay one-third of said expenses; the province to which the municipality belongs shall pay one-third; and the remaining one-third shall be borne by the National Government: Provided, however, That whenever the Secretary of Finance certifies that a municipality is not able to pay its share in the expenses above mentioned, such share which is not paid by said municipality shall be borne by the National Government. Chartered cities shall pay two-thirds of said expenses; and in case a chartered city cannot pay said expenses, the internal revenue allotments which may be due to said city shall be withheld and applied in settlement of said indebtedness in accordance with section five hundred and eighty-eight of the Administrative Code.(As amended by Com. Act No. 99)

SECTION 2 Execution of principal penalties.

 

Article 81. When and how the death penalty is to be executed. - The death sentence shall be executed with preference to any other and shall consist in putting the person under sentence to death by electrocution. The death sentence shall be executed under the authority of the Director of Prisons, endeavoring so far as possible to mitigate the sufferings of the persons under sentence during electrocution as well as during the proceedings prior to the execution.

  • If the person under sentence so desires, he shall be anaesthetized at the moment of the execution.
  •  As soon as facilities are provided by the Bureau of Prisons, the method of carrying out the sentence shall be changed to gas poisoning.
  •  The death sentence shall be carried out not later than one (1) year after the judgment has become final. (As amended by Sec. 24, Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

Article 82. Notification and execution of the sentence and assistance to the culprit. - The court shall designate a working day for the execution, but not the hour thereof; and such designation shall not be communicated to the offender before sunrise of said day, and the execution shall not take place until after the expiration of at least eight hours following the notification, but before sunset. During the interval between the notification and the execution, the culprit shall, in so far as possible, be furnished such assistance as he may request in order to be attended in his last moments by priests or ministers of the religion he professes and to consult lawyers, as well as in order to make a will and confer with members of his family or persons in charge of the management of his business, of the administration of his property, or of the care of his descendants.

 

Article 83. Suspension of the execution of the death sentence. - The death sentence shall not be inflicted upon a woman while she is pregnant or within one (1) year after delivery, nor upon any person over seventy years of age. In this last case, the death sentence shall be commuted to the penalty of reclusion perpetua with the accessory penalty provided in article 40.

  • In all cases where the death sentence has become final, the records of the case shall be forwarded immediately by the Supreme Court to the Office of the President for possible exercise of the pardoning power. (As amended by Sec. 25, Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

Article 84. Place of execution and persons who may witness the same. - The execution shall take place in the penitentiary of Bilibid in a space closed to the public view and shall be witnessed only by the priests assisting the offender and by his lawyers, and by his relatives, not exceeding six, if he so request, by the physician and the necessary personnel of the penal establishment, and by such persons as the Director of Prisons may authorize.

 

Article 85. Provision relative to the corpse of the person executed and its burial. - Unless claimed by his family, the corpse of the culprit shall, upon the completion of the legal proceedings subsequent to the execution, be turned over to the institute of learning or scientific research first applying for it, for the purpose of study and investigation, provided that such institute shall take charge of the decent burial of the remains. Otherwise, the Director of Prisons shall order the burial of the body of the culprit at government expense, granting permission to be present thereat to the members of the family of the culprit and the friends of the latter. In no case shall the burial of the body of a person sentenced to death be held with pomp.

 

Article 86. Reclusion perpetua, reclusion temporal, prision mayor, prision correccional and arresto mayor. - The penalties of reclusion perpetua, reclusion temporal, prision mayor, prision correccional and arresto mayor, shall be executed and served in the places and penal establishments provided by the Administrative Code in force or which may be provided by law in the future.

 

Article 87. Destierro. - Any person sentenced to destierro shall not be permitted to enter the place or places designated in the sentence, nor within the radius therein specified, which shall be not more than 250 and not less than 25 kilometers from the place designated.

 

Article 88. Arresto menor. - The penalty of arresto menor shall be served in the municipal jail, or in the house of the defendant himself under the surveillance of an officer of the law, when the court so provides in its decision, taking into consideration the health of the offender and other reasons which may seem satisfactory to it.

TITLE FOURExtinction of Criminal Liability

CHAPTER ONETotal Extinction of Criminal Liability

 

Article 89. How criminal liability is totally extinguished. - Criminal liability is totally extinguished:

1. By the death of the convict, as to the personal penalties; and as to pecuniary penalties, liability therefor is extinguished only when the death of the offender occurs before final judgment.

2. By service of the sentence.

3. By amnesty, which completely extinguishes the penalty and all its effects.

4. By absolute pardon.

5. By prescription of the crime.

6. By prescription of the penalty.

7. By the marriage of the offended woman, as provided in Article 344 of this Code.

 

Article 90. Prescription of crime. - Crimes punishable by death, reclusion perpetua or reclusion temporal shall prescribe in twenty years.

  • Crimes punishable by other afflictive penalties shall prescribe in fifteen years. 
  • Those punishable by a correctional penalty shall prescribe in ten years; with the exception of those punishable by arresto mayor, which shall prescribe in five years.
  • The crime of libel or other similar offenses shall prescribe in one year.
  • The crime of oral defamation and slander by deed shall prescribe in six months.
  • Light offenses prescribe in two months.
  • When the penalty fixed by law is a compound one, the highest penalty shall be made the basis of the application of the rules contained in the first, second and third paragraphs of this article. (As amended by Republic Act No. 4661, approved June 19, 1966.)

 

Article 91. Computation of prescription of offenses. - The period of prescription shall commence to run from the day on which the crime is discovered by the offended party, the authorities, or their agents, and shall be interrupted by the filing of the complaint or information, and shall commence to run again when such proceedings terminate without the accused being convicted or acquitted, or are unjustifiably stopped for any reason not imputable to him.

The term of prescription shall not run when the offender is absent from the Philippine Archipelago.

 

Article 92. When and how penalties prescribe. - The penalties imposed by final sentence prescribe as follows:

1. Death and reclusion perpetua, in twenty years;

2. Other afflictive penalties, in fifteen years;

3. Correctional penalties, in ten years; with the exception of the penalty of arresto mayor, which prescribes in five years;

4. Light penalties, in one year.

 

Article 93. Computation of the prescription of penalties. - The period of prescription of penalties shall commence to run from the date when the culprit should evade the service of his sentence, and it shall be interrupted if the defendant should give himself up, be captured, should go to some foreign country with which this Government has no extradition treaty, or should commit another crime before the expiration of the period of prescription.

CHAPTER TWOPartial Extinction of Criminal Liability

 

Article 94. Partial Extinction of criminal liability. - Criminal liability is extinguished partially:

 1. By conditional pardon;

 2. By commutation of the sentence; and

 3. For good conduct allowances which the culprit may earn while he is serving his sentence.

 

Article 95. Obligation incurred by person granted conditional pardon. - Any person who has been granted conditional pardon shall incur the obligation of complying strictly with the conditions imposed therein; otherwise, his non-compliance with any of the conditions specified shall result in the revocation of the pardon and the provisions of article 159 shall be applied to him.

Article 96. Effect of commutation of sentence. - The commutation of the original sentence for another of a different length and nature shall have the legal effect of substituting the latter in the place of the former.

Article 97. Allowance for good conduct. - The good conduct of any prisoner in any penal institution shall entitle him to the following deductions from the period of his sentence:

1. During the first two years of his imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of five days for each month of good behavior;

2. During the third to the fifth year, inclusive, of his imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of eight days for each month of good behavior;

3. During the following years until the tenth year, inclusive, of his imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of ten days for each month of good behavior; and

4. During the eleventh and successive years of his imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of fifteen days for each month of good behavior.

 

Article 98. Special time allowance for loyalty. - A deduction of one-fifth of the period of his sentence shall be granted to any prisoner who, having evaded the service of his sentence under the circumstances mentioned in article 158 of this Code, gives himself up to the authorities within 48 hours following the issuance of a proclamation announcing the passing away of the calamity or catastrophe to in said article.

 

Article 99. Who grants time allowances. - Whenever lawfully justified, the Director of Prisons shall grant allowances for good conduct. Such allowances once granted shall not be revoked.

TITLE FIVE Civil Liability

CHAPTER ONE Persons Civilly Liable for Felonies

Article 100. Civil liability of a person guilty of felony. - Every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable.

 

Article 101. Rules regarding civil liability in certain cases. - The exemption from criminal liability established in subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of article 12 and in subdivision 4 of article 11 of this Code does not include exemption from civil liability, which shall be enforced subject to the following rules:

  • First. In cases of subdivisions 1, 2, and 3 of article 12, the civil liability for acts committed by an imbecile or insane person, and by a person under nine years of age, or by one over nine but under fifteen years of age, who has acted without discernment, shall devolve upon those having such person under their legal authority or control, unless it appears that there was no fault or negligence on their part.

Should there be no person having such insane, imbecile or minor under his authority, legal guardianship, or control or if such person be insolvent, said insane, imbecile, or minor shall respond with their own property, excepting property exempt from execution, in accordance with the civil law.

  • Second. In cases falling within subdivision 4 of article 11, the persons for whose benefit the harm has been prevented shall be civilly liable in proportion to the benefit which they may have received.

The courts shall determine, in sound discretion, the proportionate amount for which each one shall be liable.

When the respective shares cannot be equitably determined, even approximately, or when the liability also attaches to the Government, or to the majority of the inhabitants of the town, and, in all events, whenever the damage has been caused with the consent of the authorities or their agents, indemnification shall be made in the manner prescribed by special laws or regulations.

  • Third. In cases falling within subdivisions 5 and 6 of article 12, the persons using violence or causing the fears shall be primarily liable and secondarily, or, if there be no such persons, those doing the act shall be liable, saving always to the latter that part of their property exempt from execution.

 

Article 102. Subsidiary civil liability of innkeepers, tavernkeepers and proprietors of establishments. - In default of the persons criminally liable, innkeepers, tavernkeepers, and any other persons or corporations shall be civilly liable for crimes committed in their establishments, in all cases where a violation of municipal ordinances or some general or special police regulation shall have been committed by them or their employees.

Innkeepers are also subsidiarily liable for the restitution of goods taken by robbery or theft within their houses from guests lodging therein, or for the payment of the value thereof, provided that such guests shall have notified in advance the innkeeper himself, or the person representing him, of the deposit of such goods within the inn; and shall furthermore have followed the directions which such innkeeper or his representative may have given them with respect to the care of and vigilance over such goods. No liability shall attach in case of robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons unless committed by the innkeeper's employees.

Article 103. Subsidiary civil liability of other persons. - The subsidiary liability established in the next preceding article shall also apply to employers, teachers, persons, and corporations engaged in any kind of industry for felonies committed by their servants, pupils, workmen, apprentices, or employees in the discharge of their duties.

CHAPTER TWOWhat Civil Liability Includes

Article 104. What is included in civil liability. - The civil liability established in articles 100, 101, 102, and 103 of this Code includes: 

1. Restitution;

2. Reparation of the damage caused;

3. Indemnification for consequential damages. 

 

Article 105. Restitution. - How made. - The restitution of the thing itself must be made whenever possible, with allowance for any deterioration, or diminution of value as determined by the court.

  • The thing itself shall be restored, even though it be found in the possession of a third person who has acquired it by lawful means, saving to the latter his action against the proper person, who may be liable to him.
  • This provision is not applicable in cases in which the thing has been acquired by the third person in the manner and under the requirements which, by law, bar an action for its recovery. 

 

Article 106. Reparation. - How made. - The court shall determine the amount of damage, taking into consideration the price of the thing, whenever possible, and its special sentimental value to the injured party, and reparation shall be made accordingly.

 

Article 107. Indemnification - What is included. - Indemnification for consequential damages shall include not only those caused the injured party, but also those suffered by his family or by a third person by reason of the crime.

 

Article 108. Obligation to make restoration, reparation for damages, or indemnification for consequential damages and action to demand the same - Upon whom it devolves. - The obligation to make restoration or reparation for damages and indemnification for consequential damages devolves upon the heirs of the person liable.

  • The action to demand restoration, reparation, and indemnification likewise descends to the heirs of the person injured.

 

Article 109. Share of each person civilly liable. - If there are two or more persons civilly liable for a felony, the courts shall determine the amount for which each must respond.

 

Article 110. Several and subsidiary liability of principals, accomplices and accessories of a felony - Preference in payment. - Notwithstanding the provisions of the next preceding article, the principals, accomplices, and accessories, each within their respective class, shall be liable severally (in solidum) among themselves for their quotas, and subsidiarily for those of the other persons liable.

The subsidiary liability shall be enforced, first against the property of the principals; next, against that of the accomplices, and, lastly, against that of the accessories.

Whenever the liability in solidum or the subsidiary liability has been enforced, the person by whom payment has been made shall have a right of action against the others for the amount of their respective shares.

 

Article 111. Obligation to make restitution in certain cases. - Any person who has participated gratuitously in the proceeds of a felony shall be bound to make restitution in an amount equivalent to the extent of such participation.

 

CHAPTER THREE Extinction and Survival of Civil Liability

Article 112. Extinction of civil liability. - Civil liability established in articles 100, 101, 102, and 103 of this Code shall be extinguished in the same manner as other obligations, in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Law.

 

Article 113. Obligation to satisfy civil liability. - Except in case of extinction of his civil liability as provided in the next preceding article, the offender shall continue to be obliged to satisfy the civil liability resulting from the crime committed by him, notwithstanding the fact that he has served his sentence consisting of deprivation of liberty or other rights, or has not been required to serve the same by reason of amnesty, pardon, commutation of sentence or any other reason.

BOOK TWO Crimes and Penalties

TITLE ONE Crimes Against National Security and the Law of the Nations
CHAPTER ONE Crimes Against National Security

 

SECTION 1 Treason and espionage

Article 114. Treason. - Any Filipino citizen who levies war against the Philippines or adheres to her enemies, giving them aid or comfort within the Philippines or elsewhere, shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to death and shall pay a fine not to exceed P100,000 pesos.

No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses at least to the same overt act or on confession of the accused in open court.

Likewise, an alien, residing in the Philippines, who commits acts of treason as defined in paragraph 1 of this Article shall be punished by reclusion temporal to death and shall pay a fine not to exceed P100,000 pesos. (As amended by E.O. No. 44, May 31, 1945 and Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

Article 115. Conspiracy and proposal to commit treason - Penalty. - The conspiracy or proposal to commit the crime of treason shall be punished respectively, by prision mayor and a fine not exceeding P10,000 pesos, and prision correccional and a fine not exceeding P5,000 pesos.

Article 116. Misprision of treason. - Every person owing allegiance to (the United States) the Government of the Philippine Islands, without being a foreigner, and having knowledge of any conspiracy against them, who conceals or does not disclose and make known the same, as soon as possible to the governor or fiscal of the province, or the mayor or fiscal of the city in which he resides, as the case may be, shall be punished as an accessory to the crime of treason.

 

Article 117. Espionage. - The penalty of prision correccional shall be inflicted upon any person who:

1. Without authority therefor, enters a warship, fort, or naval or military establishment or reservation to obtain any information, plans, photographs, or other data of a confidential nature relative to the defense of the Philippine Archipelago; or

2. Being in possession, by reason of the public office he holds, of the articles, data, or information referred to in the preceding paragraph, discloses their contents to a representative of a foreign nation.

The penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed if the offender be a public officer or employee.

 

SECTION 2 Provoking war and disloyalty in case of war

 

Article 118. Inciting to war or giving motives for reprisals. - The penalty of reclusion temporal shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee, and that of prision mayor upon any private individual, who, by unlawful or unauthorized acts provokes or gives occasion for a war involving or liable to involve the Philippine Islands or exposes Filipino citizens to reprisals on their persons or property.

 

Article 119. Violation of neutrality. - The penalty of prision correccional shall be inflicted upon anyone who, on the occasion of a war in which the Government is not involved, violates any regulation issued by competent authority for the purpose of enforcing neutrality.

 

Article 120. Correspondence with hostile country. - Any person who in time of war, shall have correspondence with an enemy country or territory occupied by enemy troops shall be punished:

1. By prision correccional, if the correspondence has been prohibited by the Government;

2. By prision mayor, if such correspondence be carried on in ciphers or conventional signs; and

3. By reclusion temporal, if notice or information be given thereby which might be useful to the enemy. If the offender intended to aid the enemy by giving such notice or information, he shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal to death.

 

Article 121. Flight to enemy's country. - The penalty of arresto mayor shall be inflicted upon any person who, owing allegiance to the Government, attempts to flee or go to an enemy country when prohibited by competent authority.

 

SECTION 3 Piracy and mutiny on the high seas or in Philippine Waters

 

Article 122. Piracy in general and mutiny on the high seas or in Philippine waters. - The penalty of reclusion perpetua shall be inflicted upon any person who, on the high seas, or in Philippine waters, shall attack or seize a vessel or, not being a member of its complement nor a passenger, shall seize the whole or part of the cargo of said vessel, its equipment, or personal belongings of its complement or passengers.

The same penalty shall be inflicted in case of mutiny on the high seas or in Philippine waters. (As amended by Sec. 3, Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

Article 123. Qualified piracy. - The penalty of reclusion perpetua to death shall be imposed upon those who commit any of the crimes referred to in the preceding article, under any of the following circumstances:

1. Whenever they have seized a vessel by boarding or firing upon the same;

2. Whenever the pirates have abandoned their victims without means of saving themselves; or

3. Whenever the crime is accompanied by murder, homicide, physical injuries or rape. (As amended by Sec. 3, Republic Act No. 7659.)

 

                                          TITLE TWO Crimes Against the Fundamental Laws of the State

                                                                          CHAPTER ONE

Arbitrary Detention or Expulsion, Violation of Dwelling, Prohibition, Interruption, and Dissolution of Peaceful Meetings and Crimes Against Religious Worship

SECTION 1 Arbitrary detention and expulsion

 

Article 124. Arbitrary detention. - Any public officer or employee who, without legal grounds, detains a person, shall suffer:

1. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period, if the detention has not exceeded three days;

2. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the detention has continued more than three but not more than fifteen days;

3. The penalty of prision mayor, if the detention has continued for more than fifteen days but not more than six months; and

4. That of reclusion temporal, if the detention shall have exceeded six months.

The commission of a crime, or violent insanity or any other ailment requiring the compulsory confinement of the patient in a hospital, shall be considered legal grounds for the detention of any person.

 

Article 125. Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper judicial authorities. - The penalties provided in the next preceding article shall be imposed upon the public officer or employee who shall detain any person for some legal ground and shall fail to deliver such person to the proper judicial authorities within the period of: twelve (12) hours, for crimes or offenses punishable by light penalties, or their equivalent; eighteen (18) hours, for crimes or offenses punishable by correctional penalties, or their equivalent; and thirty-six (36) hours, for crimes or offenses punishable by afflictive or capital penalties, or their equivalent.

In every case, the person detained shall be informed of the cause of his detention and shall be allowed upon his request, to communicate and confer at any time with his attorney or counsel.(As amended by EO No. 272, prom. July 25, 1987.)

 

Article 126. Delaying release. - The penalties provided for in article 124 shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who delays for the period of time specified therein the performance of any judicial or executive order for the release of a prisoner or detention prisoner, or unduly delays the service of the notice of such order to said prisoner or the proceedings upon any petition for the liberation of such person.

 

Article 127. Expulsion. - The penalty of prision correccional shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who, not being thereunto authorized by law, shall expel any person from the Philippine Islands or shall compel such person to change his residence.

 

SECTION 2 Violation of domicile

 

Article 128. Violation of domicile. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who, not being authorized by judicial order, shall enter any dwelling against the will of the owner thereof, search papers or other effects found therein without the previous consent of such owner, or having surreptitiously entered said dwelling, and being required to leave the premises, shall refuse to do so.

If the offense be committed in the nighttime, or if any papers or effects not constituting evidence of a crime be not returned immediately after the search made by the offender, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.

 

Article 129. Search warrants maliciously obtained and abuse in the service of those legally obtained. - In addition to the liability attaching to the offender for the commission of any other offense, the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall procure a search warrant without just cause, or, having legally procured the same, shall exceed his authority or use unnecessary severity in executing the same.

 

Article 130. Searching domicile without witnesses. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon a public officer or employee who, in cases where a search is proper, shall search the domicile, papers or other belongings of any person, in the absence of the latter, any member of his family, or in their default, without the presence of two witnesses residing in the same locality.

 

SECTION 3 Prohibition, interruption, and dissolution of peaceful meetings

 

Article 131. Prohibition, interruption, and dissolution of peaceful meetings. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who, without legal ground, shall prohibit or interrupt the holding of a peaceful meeting, or shall dissolve the same.

The same penalty shall be imposed upon a public officer or employee who shall hinder any person from joining any lawful association or from attending any of its meetings.

The same penalty shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall prohibit or hinder any person from addressing, either alone or together with others, any petition to the authorities for the correction of abuses or redress of grievances.

 

SECTION 4 Crimes against religious worship

 

Article 132. Interruption of religious worship. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall prevent or disturb the ceremonies or manifestations of any religion.

If the crime shall have been committed with violence or threats, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.

 

Article 133. Offending the religious feelings. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon anyone who, in a place devoted to religious worship or during the celebration of any religious ceremony shall perform acts notoriously offensive to the feelings of the faithful.

 

                                                                                                               TITLE THREE

                                                                                                   Crimes Against Public Order

                                                                                                           CHAPTER ONE

                                                                                         Rebellion, Sedition, and Disloyalty

Article 134. Rebellion or insurrection - How committed. - The crime of rebellion or insurrection is committed by rising publicly and taking arms against the Government for the purpose of removing from the allegiance to said Government or its laws, the territory of the Republic of the Philippines or any part thereof, of any body of land, naval or other armed forces, or depriving the Chief Executive or the Legislature, wholly or partially, of any of their powers or prerogatives. (As amended by Republic Act No. 6968, O.G. 52, p. 9864 [1990].)

 

Article 134-A. Coup d'état. - How committed. - The crime of coup d'état is a swift attack accompanied by violence, intimidation, threat, strategy or stealth, directed against duly constituted authorities of the Republic of the Philippines, or any military camp or installation, communications network, public utilities or other facilities needed for the exercise and continued possession of power, singly or simultaneously carried out anywhere in the Philippines by any person or persons, belonging to the military or police or holding any public office of employment, with or without civilian support or participation for the purpose of seizing or diminishing state power. (As added by Republic Act No. 6968, 86 O.G. 52, p. 9864 [1990]).)

 

Article 135. Penalty for rebellion, insurrection or coup d'état. - Any person who promotes, maintains or heads a rebellion or insurrection shall suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua.

  • Any person merely participating or executing the commands of others in a rebellion or insurrection shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal.
  • Any person who leads or in any manner directs or commands others to undertake a coup d'état shall suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua.
  • Any person in the government service who participates, or executes directions or commands of others in undertaking a coup d'état shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal in its maximum period.
  • Any person not in the government service who participates, or in any manner supports, finances, abets or aids in undertaking a coup d'état shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period.
  • When the rebellion, insurrection, or coup d'état shall be under the command of unknown leaders, any person who in fact directed the others, spoke for them, signed receipts and other documents issued in their name, as performed similar acts, on behalf of the rebels shall be deemed a leader of such rebellion, insurrection, or coup d'état. (As amended by Republic Act No. 6968, approved on October 24, 1990)

 

Article 136. Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d'état, rebellion or insurrection. - The conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d'état shall be punished by prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine which shall not exceed eight thousand pesos (P8,000.00).

 

The conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection shall be punished, respectively, by prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine which shall not exceed five thousand pesos (P5,000.00), and by prision correccional in its medium period and a fine not exceeding two thousand pesos (P2,000.00). (As amended by Republic Act No. 6968, approved October 24, 1990).

 

Article 137. Disloyalty of public officers or employees. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon public officers or employees who have failed to resist a rebellion by all the means in their power, or shall continue to discharge the duties of their offices under the control of the rebels or shall accept appointment to office under them. (Restored by E.O. No. 187)

 

Article 138. Inciting to rebellion or insurrection. - The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any person who, without taking arms or being in open hostility against the Government, shall incite others to the execution of any of the acts specified in article 134 of this Code, by means of speeches, proclamations, writings, emblems, banners or other representations tending to the same end. (As reinstated by E.O. No. 187.)

 

Article 139. Sedition - How committed. - The crime of sedition is committed by persons who rise publicly and tumultuously in order to attain by force, intimidation, or by other means outside of legal methods, any of the following objects:

1. To prevent the promulgation or execution of any law or the holding of any popular election;

2. To prevent the National Government, or any provincial or municipal government, or any public officer thereof from freely exercising its or his functions, or prevent the execution of any administrative order;

3. To inflict any act of hate or revenge upon the person or property of any public officer or employee;

4. To commit, for any political or social end, any act of hate or revenge against private persons or any social class; and

5. To despoil, for any political or social end, any person, municipality or province, or the National Government (or the Government of the United States), of all its property or any part thereof.(As amended by Com. Act No.202.)

 

Article 140. Penalty for sedition. - The leader of a sedition shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 10,000 pesos.

Other persons participating therein shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 5,000 pesos. (Restored by E.O. No. 187.)

 

Article 141. Conspiracy to commit sedition. - Persons conspiring to commit the crime of sedition shall be punished by prision correccional in its medium period and a fine not exceeding 2,000 pesos. (Restored by E.O. No. 187.)

 

Article 142. Inciting to sedition. - The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 2,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who, without taking any direct part in the crime of sedition, should incite others to the accomplishment of any of the acts which constitute sedition, by means of speeches, proclamations, writings, emblems, cartoons, banners, or other representations tending to the same end, or upon any person or persons who shall utter seditious words or speeches, write, publish, or circulate scurrilous libels against the Government (of the United States or the Government of the Commonwealth) of the Philippines, or any of the duly constituted authorities thereof, or which tend to disturb or obstruct any lawful officer in executing the functions of his office, or which tend to instigate others to cabal and meet together for unlawful purposes, or which suggest or incite rebellious conspiracies or riots, or which lead or tend to stir up the people against the lawful authorities or to disturb the peace of the community, the safety and order of the Government, or who shall knowingly conceal such evil practices. (As amended by Com. Act No. 202.)

 

                                                                                CHAPTER TWO Crimes Against Popular Representation

 

SECTION 1 Crimes against legislative bodies and similar bodies

Article 143. Acts tending to prevent the meeting of the Assembly and similar bodies. - The penalty of prision correccional or a fine ranging from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, by force or fraud, prevents the meeting of the National Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) or of any of its committees or subcommittees, constitutional commissions or committees or divisions thereof, or of any provincial board or city or municipal council or board. ( As amended by Com. Act No. 264) (Restored by E.O. No. 187.)

 

Article 144. Disturbance of proceedings. - The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine from 200 to 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who disturbs the meetings of the National Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) or of any of its committees or subcommittees, constitutional commissions or committees or divisions thereof, or of any provincial board or city or municipal council or board, or in the presence of any such bodies should behave in such manner as to interrupt its proceedings or to impair the respect due it.(As amended by Com. Act No. 264) ( Restored by E.O. No. 187.)

 

SECTION 2 Violation of parliamentary immunity

 

Article 145. Violation of parliamentary immunity. - The penalty of prision mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall use force, intimidation, threats, or fraud to prevent any member of the National Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) from attending the meetings of the Assembly (Congress) or of any of its committees or subcommittees, constitutional commissions or committees or divisions thereof, from expressing his opinions or casting his vote; and the penalty of prision correccional shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall, while the Assembly (Congress) is in regular or special session, arrest or search any member thereof, except in case such member has committed a crime punishable under this Code by a penalty higher than prision mayor. (As amended by Com. Act No. 264.)

                                                                                              CHAPTER THREE

                                                                                Illegal Assemblies and Associations

 

Article 146. Illegal assemblies. - The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its medium period shall be imposed upon the organizers or leaders of any meeting attended by armed persons for the purpose of committing any of the crimes punishable under this Code, or of any meeting in which the audience is incited to the commission of the crime of treason, rebellion or insurrection, sedition or assault upon a person in authority or his agents. Persons merely present at such meeting shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor, unless they are armed, in which case the penalty shall be prision correccional.

  • If any person present at the meeting carries an unlicensed firearm, it shall be presumed that the purpose of said meeting, insofar as he is concerned, is to commit acts punishable under this Code, and he shall be considered a leader or organizer of the meeting within the purview of the preceding paragraph.
  • As used in this article, the word "meeting" shall be understood to include a gathering or group, whether in a fixed place or moving.(As amended by Republic Act No. 12, approved Sept. 5, 1946.) (Restored by EO No. 187.)

 

Article 147. Illegal associations. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon the founders, directors, and presidents of associations totally or partially organized for the purpose of committing any of the crimes punishable under this Code or for some purpose contrary to public morals. Mere members of said associations shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor. (Restored by E.O. No. 187.)

 

                                                                                                                  CHAPTER FOUR

                                                                Assault Upon, and Resistance and Disobedience to Persons in Authority and Their Agents

 

Article 148. Direct assaults. - Any person or persons who, without a public uprising, shall employ force or intimidation for the attainment of any of the purposes enumerated in defining the crimes of rebellion and sedition, or shall attack, employ force, or seriously intimidate or resist any person in authority or any of his agents, while engaged in the performance of official duties, or on occasion of such performance, shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos, when the assault is committed with a weapon or when the offender is a public officer or employee, or when the offender lays hands upon a person in authority. If none of these circumstances be present, the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be imposed.

 

Article 149. Indirect assaults. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall make use of force or intimidation upon any person coming to the aids of the authorities or their agents on occasion of the commission of any of the crimes defined in the next preceding article.

 

Article 150. Disobedience to summons issued by the National Assembly, its committees or subcommittees, by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees, subcommittees or divisions. - The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from two hundred to one thousand pesos, or both such fine and imprisonment, shall be imposed upon any person who, having been duly summoned to attend as a witness before the National Assembly, (Congress), its special or standing committees and subcommittees, the Constitutional Commissions and its committees, subcommittees, or divisions or before any commission or committee chairman or member authorized to summon witnesses, refuses, without legal excuse, to obey such summons, or being present before any such legislative or constitutional body or official, refuses to be sworn or placed under affirmation or to answer any legal inquiry or to produce any books, papers, documents, or records in his possession, when required by them to do so in the exercise of their functions. The same penalty shall be imposed upon any person who shall restrain another from attending as a witness, or who shall induce disobedience to a summon or refusal to be sworn by any such body or official.(As amended by Com. Act No. 52.)

 

Article 151. Resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents of such person. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who not being included in the provisions of the preceding articles shall resist or seriously disobey any person in authority, or the agents of such person, while engaged in the performance of official duties.

When the disobedience to an agent of a person in authority is not of a serious nature, the penalty of arresto menor or a fine ranging from 10 to 100 pesos shall be imposed upon the offender.

 

Article 152. Persons in authority and agents of persons in authority - Who shall be deemed as such. - In applying the provisions of the preceding and other articles of this Code, any person directly vested with jurisdiction, whether as an individual or as a member of some court or governmental corporation, board, or commission, shall be deemed a person in authority. A barrio captain and a barangay chairman shall also be deemed a person in authority.

  • A person who, by direct provision of law or by election or by appointment by competent authority, is charged with the maintenance of public order and the protection and security of life and property, such as a barrio councilman, barrio policeman and barangay leader, and any person who comes to the aid of persons in authority, shall be deemed an agent of a person in authority.
  • In applying the provisions of articles 148 and 151 of this Code, teachers, professors and persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools, colleges and universities, and lawyers in the actual performance of their professional duties or on the occasion of such performance, shall be deemed persons in authority. (As amended by Batas Pambansa Blg. 873, June 12, 1985.)

                                                                                                                                                 CHAPTER FIVE

                                                                                                                                                Public Disorders

 

Article 153. Tumults and other disturbances of public orders - Tumultuous disturbance or interruption liable to cause disturbance. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall cause any serious disturbance in a public place, office, or establishment, or shall interrupt or disturb public performances, functions or gatherings, or peaceful meetings, if the act is not included in the provisions of articles 131 and 132.

  • The penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed upon persons causing any disturbance or interruption of a tumultuous character.
  • The disturbance or interruption shall be deemed to be tumultuous if caused by more than three persons who are armed or provided with means of violence.
  • The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any person who in any meeting, association, or public place, shall make any outcry tending to incite rebellion or sedition or in such place shall display placards or emblems which provoke a disturbance of the public order.
  • The penalty of arresto menor and a fine not to exceed P200 pesos shall be imposed upon those persons who in violation of the provisions contained in the last clause of article 85, shall bury with pomp the body of a person who has been legally executed.

 

Article 154. Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine ranging from P200 to P1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon:

1. Any person who by means of printing, lithography, or any other means of publication shall publish or cause to be published as news any false news which may endanger the public order, or cause damage to the interest or credit of the State;

2. Any person who by the same means, or by words, utterances or speeches, shall encourage disobedience to the law or to the constituted authorities or praise, justify, or extol any act punished by law;

3. Any person who shall maliciously publish or cause to be published any official resolution or document without proper authority, or before they have been published officially; or

4. Any person who shall print, publish, or distribute or cause to be printed, published, or distributed books, pamphlets, periodicals, or leaflets which do not bear the real printer's name, or which are classified as anonymous.(As amended by Com. Act No. 202.)

 

Article 155. Alarms and scandals. - The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding P200 pesos shall be imposed upon:

1. Any person who within any town or public place, shall discharge any firearm, rocket, firecracker, or other explosives calculated to cause alarm or danger;

2. Any person who shall instigate or take an active part in any charivari or other disorderly meeting offensive to another or prejudicial to public tranquility;

3. Any person who, while wandering about at night or while engaged in any other nocturnal amusements, shall disturb the public peace; or

4. Any person who, while intoxicated or otherwise, shall cause any disturbance or scandal in public places, provided that the circumstances of the case shall not make the provisions of article 153 applicable.

 

Article 156. Delivery of prisoners from jail. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any person who shall remove from any jail or penal establishment any person confined therein or shall help the escape of such person, by means of violence, intimidation, or bribery. If other means are used, the penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed.

If the escape of the prisoner shall take place outside of said establishments by taking the guards by surprise, the same penalties shall be imposed in their minimum period.

 

CHAPTER SIX Evasion of Service of Sentence

 

Article 157. Evasion of service of sentence. - The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon any convict who shall evade service of his sentence by escaping during the term of his imprisonment by reason of final judgment. However, if such evasion or escape shall have taken place by means of unlawful entry, by breaking doors, windows, gates, walls, roofs, floors, or by using picklocks, false keys, disguise, deceit, violence or intimidation, or through connivance with other convicts or employees of the penal institution, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its maximum period.

 

Article 158. Evasion of service of sentence on the occasion of disorder, conflagrations, earthquakes, or other calamities. - A convict who shall evade the service of his sentence, by leaving the penal institution where he shall have been confined, on the occasion of disorder resulting from a conflagration, earthquake, explosion, or similar catastrophe, or during a mutiny in which he has not participated, shall suffer an increase of one-fifth of the time still remaining to be served under the original sentence, which in no case shall exceed six months, if he shall fail to give himself up to the authorities within forty-eight hours following the issuance of a proclamation by the Chief Executive announcing the passing away of such calamity.

Convicts who, under the circumstances mentioned in the preceding paragraph, shall give themselves up to the authorities within the above mentioned period of 48 hours, shall be entitled to the deduction provided in article 98.

 

Article 159. Other cases of evasion of service of sentence. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon the convict who, having been granted conditional pardon by the Chief Executive, shall violate any of the conditions of such pardon. However, if the penalty remitted by the granting of such pardon be higher than six years, the convict shall then suffer the unexpired portion of his original sentence.

 

CHAPTER SEVEN Commission of Another Crime During Service of Penalty Imposed for Another Previous Offense

Article 160. Commission of another crime during service of penalty imposed for another previous offense - Penalty. - Besides the provisions of rule 5 of article 62, any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment, before beginning to serve such sentence, or while serving the same, shall be punished by the maximum period of the penalty prescribed by law for the new felony.

Any convict of the class referred to in this article, who is not a habitual criminal, shall be pardoned at the age of seventy years if he shall have already served out his original sentence, or when he shall complete it after reaching the said age, unless by reason of his conduct or other circumstances he shall not be worthy of such clemency.

 

TITLE FOUR Crimes Against Public Interest

CHAPTER ONE Forgeries

 

SECTION 1 Forging the seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands, the signature or stamp of the Chief Executive

 

Article 161. Counterfeiting the great seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands, forging the signature or stamp of the Chief Executive. - The penalty of reclusion temporal shall be imposed upon any person who shall forge the Great Seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands or the signature or stamp of the Chief Executive.

 

Article 162. Using forged signature or counterfeit seal or stamp. - The penalty of prision mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall knowingly make use of the counterfeit seal or forged signature or stamp mentioned in the preceding article.

 

SECTION 2 Counterfeiting Coins

Article 163. Making and importing and uttering false coins. - Any person who makes, imports, or utters false coins, in connivance with counterfeiters, or importers, shall suffer:

1. Prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not to exceed 10,000 pesos, if the counterfeited coin be silver coin of the Philippines or coin of the Central Bank of the Philippines of ten-centavo denomination or above.

2. Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine of not to exceed 2,000 pesos, if the counterfeited coins be any of the minor coinage of the Philippines or of the Central Bank of the Philippines below ten-centavo denomination.

3. Prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 1,000 pesos, if the counterfeited coin be currency of a foreign country. (As amended by R.A. No. 4202, approved June 19, 1965).

 

Article 164. Mutilation of coins. - Importation and utterance of mutilated coins. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 2,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall mutilate coins of the legal currency of the (United States or of the) Philippine Islands or import or utter mutilated current coins, or in connivance with mutilators or importers.

 

Article 165. Selling of false or mutilated coin, without connivance. - The person who knowingly, although without the connivance mentioned in the preceding articles, shall possess false or mutilated coin with intent to utter the same, or shall actually utter such coin, shall suffer a penalty lower by one degree than that prescribed in said articles.

SECTION 3 Forging treasury or bank notes, obligations and securities; importing and uttering false or forged notes, obligations and securities

 

Article 166. Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering such false or forged notes and documents. - The forging or falsification of treasury or bank notes or certificates or other obligations and securities payable to bearer and the importation and uttering in connivance with forgers or importers of such false or forged obligations or notes, shall be punished as follows:

1. By reclusion temporal in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 10,000 pesos, if the document which has been falsified, counterfeited, or altered is an obligation or security of the (United States or of the) Philippines Islands.

The word "obligation or security of the (United States or of the) Philippine Islands" shall be held to mean all bonds, certificates of indebtedness, national bank notes, coupons, (United States or) Philippine Islands notes, treasury notes, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills, checks, or drafts for money, drawn by or upon authorized officers of the (United States or of the) Philippine Islands, and other representatives of value, of whatever denomination, which have been or may be issued under any act of the Congress of the (United States or of the) Philippine Legislature.

2. By prision mayor in its maximum period and a fine not to exceed 2,000 pesos, when the forged or altered document is a circulating note issued by any banking association duly authorized by law to issue the same.

3. By prision mayor in its medium period and a fine not to exceed 5,000 pesos, if the falsified or counterfeited document was issued by a foreign government.

4. By prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 2,000 pesos, when the forged or altered document is a circulating note or bill issued by a foreign bank duly authorized therefor.

 

Article 167. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering instruments payable to bearer. - Any person who shall forge, import or utter, in connivance with the forgers or importers, any instrument payable to order or other document of credit not payable to bearer, shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not exceeding 6,000 pesos.

 

Article 168. Illegal possession and use of false treasury or bank notes and other instruments of credit. - Unless the act be one of those coming under the provisions of any of the preceding articles, any person who shall knowingly use or have in his possession, with intent to use any of the false or falsified instruments referred to in this section, shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed in said articles.

 

Article 169. How forgery is committed. - The forgery referred to in this section may be committed by any of the following means:

1. By giving to a treasury or bank note or any instrument payable to bearer or to order mentioned therein, the appearance of a true genuine document.

2. By erasing, substituting, counterfeiting or altering by any means the figures, letters, words or signs contained therein.

 

SECTION 4 Falsification of legislative, public, commercial, and private documents, and wireless, telegraph, and telephone messages

 

Article 170. Falsification of legislative documents. - The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 6,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who, without proper authority therefor alters any bill, resolution, or ordinance enacted or approved or pending approval by either House of the Legislature or any provincial board or municipal council.

 

Article 171. Falsification by public officer, employee or notary or ecclesiastic minister. - The penalty of prision mayor and a fine not to exceed 5,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any public officer, employee, or notary who, taking advantage of his official position, shall falsify a document by committing any of the following acts:

1. Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting, signature or rubric;

2. Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so participate;

3. Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or proceeding statements other than those in fact made by them;

4. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts;

5. Altering true dates;

6. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document which changes its meaning;

7. Issuing in an authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of an original document when no such original exists, or including in such a copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine original; or

8. Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol, registry, or official book.

The same penalty shall be imposed upon any ecclesiastical minister who shall commit any of the offenses enumerated in the preceding paragraphs of this article, with respect to any record or document of such character that its falsification may affect the civil status of persons.

 

Article 172. Falsification by private individuals and use of falsified documents. - The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine of not more than 5,000 pesos shall be imposed upon:

1. Any private individual who shall commit any of the falsifications enumerated in the next preceding article in any public or official document or letter of exchange or any other kind of commercial document; and

2. Any person who, to the damage of a third party, or with the intent to cause such damage, shall in any private document commit any of the acts of falsification enumerated in the next preceding article.

Any person who shall knowingly introduce in evidence in any judicial proceeding or to the damage of another or who, with the intent to cause such damage, shall use any of the false documents embraced in the next preceding article, or in any of the foregoing subdivisions of this article, shall be punished by the penalty next lower in degree.

 

Article 173. Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone messages, and use of said falsified messages. - The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon officer or employee of the Government or of any private corporation or concern engaged in the service of sending or receiving wireless, cable or telephone message who utters a fictitious wireless, telegraph or telephone message of any system or falsifies the same.

Any person who shall use such falsified dispatch to the prejudice of a third party or with the intent of cause such prejudice, shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree.

 

SECTION 5 Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or services and the like

 

Article 174. False medical certificates, false certificates of merits or service, etc. - The penalties of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon:

1. Any physician or surgeon who, in connection, with the practice of his profession, shall issue a false certificate; and

2. Any public officer who shall issue a false certificate of merit or service, good conduct or similar circumstances.

The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any private person who shall falsify a certificate falling within the classes mentioned in the two preceding subdivisions.

 

Article 175. Using false certificates. - The penalty of arresto menor shall be imposed upon any one who shall knowingly use any of the false certificates mentioned in the next preceding article.

 

SECTION 6 Manufacturing, importing and possession of instruments or implements intended for the commission of falsification

 

Article 176. Manufacturing and possession of instruments or implements for falsification. - The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not to exceed 10,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall make or introduce into the Philippine Islands any stamps, dies, marks, or other instruments or implements intended to be used in the commission of the offenses of counterfeiting or falsification mentioned in the preceding sections of this chapter.

  • Any person who, with the intention of using them, shall have in his possession any of the instruments or implements mentioned in the preceding paragraph, shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that provided therein.

 

CHAPTER TWO Other Falsities

 

SECTION 1 Usurpation of authority, rank, title, and improper use of names, uniforms and insignia

Article 177. Usurpation of authority or official functions. - Any person who shall knowingly and falsely represent himself to be an officer, agent or representative of any department or agency of the Philippine Government or of any foreign government, or who, under pretense of official position, shall perform any act pertaining to any person in authority or public officer of the Philippine Government or of any foreign government, or any agency thereof, without being lawfully entitled to do so, shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods.(As amended by Republic Act No. 379, approved June 14, 1949.) (Restored by EO No. 187.)

 

Article 178. Using fictitious name and concealing true name. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not to exceed 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall publicly use a fictitious name for the purpose of concealing a crime, evading the execution of a judgment or causing damage.

Any person who conceals his true name and other personal circumstances shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine not to exceed 200 pesos. (Restored by EO No. 187.)

Article 179. Illegal use of uniforms or insignia. - The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall publicly and improperly make use of insignia, uniforms or dress pertaining to an office not held by such person or to a class of persons of which he is not a member.(Restored by EO No. 187.)

 

SECTION 2 False testimony

Article 180. False testimony against a defendant. - Any person who shall give false testimony against the defendant in any criminal case shall suffer:

1. The penalty of reclusion temporal, if the defendant in said case shall have been sentenced to death;

2. The penalty of prision mayor, if the defendant shall have been sentenced to reclusion temporal or reclusion perpetua;

3. The penalty of prision correccional, if the defendant shall have been sentenced to any other afflictive penalty; and

4. The penalty of arresto mayor, if the defendant shall have been sentenced to a correctional penalty or a fine, or shall have been acquitted.

In cases provided in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this article the offender shall further suffer a fine not to exceed 1,000 pesos.

 

Article 181. False testimony favorable to the defendant. - Any person who shall give false testimony in favor of the defendant in a criminal case, shall suffer the penalties of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 1,000 pesos, if the prosecution is for a felony punishable by an afflictive penalty, and the penalty of arresto mayor in any other case.

 

Article 182. False testimony in civil cases. - Any person found guilty of false testimony in a civil case shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 6,000 pesos, if the amount in controversy shall exceed 5,000 pesos, and the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 1,000 pesos, if the amount in controversy shall not exceed said amount or cannot be estimated.

 

Article 183. False testimony in other cases and perjury in solemn affirmation. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any person, who, knowingly makes untruthful statements and not being included in the provisions of the next preceding articles, shall testify under oath, or make an affidavit, upon any material matter before a competent person authorized to administer an oath in cases in which the law so requires.

Any person who, in case of a solemn affirmation made in lieu of an oath, shall commit any of the falsehoods mentioned in this and the three preceding articles of this section, shall suffer the respective penalties provided therein.

 

Article 184. Offering false testimony in evidence. - Any person who shall knowingly offer in evidence a false witness or testimony in any judicial or official proceeding, shall be punished as guilty of false testimony and shall suffer the respective penalties provided in this section.

 

CHAPTER THREE Frauds

SECTION 1 Machinations, monopolies and combinations

Article 185. Machinations in public auctions. - Any person who shall solicit any gift or a promise as a consideration for refraining from taking part in any public auction, and any person who shall attempt to cause bidders to stay away from an auction by threats, gifts, promises, or any other artifice, with intent to cause the reduction of the price of the thing auctioned, shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine ranging from 10 to 50 per centum of the value of the thing auctioned.

 

Article 186. Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon:

1. Any person who shall enter into any contract or agreement or shall take part in any conspiracy or combination in the form of a trust or otherwise, in restraint of trade or commerce to prevent by artificial means free competition in the market.

2. Any person who shall monopolize any merchandise or object of trade or commerce, or shall combine with any other person or persons to monopolize said merchandise or object in order to alter the price thereof by spreading false rumors or making use of any other article to restrain free competition in the market.

3. Any person who, being a manufacturer, producer, or processor of any merchandise or object of commerce or an importer of any merchandise or object of commerce from any foreign country, either as principal or agent, wholesaler or retailer, shall combine, conspire or agree in any manner with any person likewise engaged in the manufacture, production, processing, assembling or importation of such merchandise or object to commerce or with any other persons not so similarly engaged for the purpose of making transactions prejudicial to lawful commerce, or of increasing the market price in any part of the Philippines, or any such merchandise or object of commerce manufactured, produced, processed, assembled in or imported into the Philippines, or of any article in the manufacture of which such manufactured, produced, processed, or imported merchandise or object of commerce is used.

  • If the offense mentioned in this article affects any food substance, motor fuel or lubricants, or other articles of prime necessity; the penalty shall be that of prision mayor in its maximum and medium periods, it being sufficient for the imposition thereof that the initial steps have been taken toward carrying out the purposes of the combination.
  • Any property possessed under any contract or by any combination mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, and being the subject thereof, shall be forfeited to the Government of the Philippines.
  • Whenever any of the offenses described above is committed by a corporation or association, the president and each one of the directors or managers of said corporation or association or its agents or representative in the Philippines in case of a foreign corporation or association, who shall have knowingly permitted or failed to prevent the commission of such offenses, shall be held liable as principals thereof.(As amended by Republic Act No. 1956, approved June 22, 1957.)

 

SECTION 2 Frauds in commerce and industry

 

Article 187. Importation and disposition of falsely marked articles or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious metals or their alloys. - The penalty of prision correccional or a fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who shall knowingly import or sell or dispose of any article or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious metals, or their alloys, with stamps, brands, or marks which fail to indicate the actual fineness or quality of said metals or alloys.

Any stamp, brand, label, or mark shall be deemed to fail to indicate the actual fineness of the article on which it is engraved, printed, stamped, labeled or attached, when the test of the article shows that the quality or fineness thereof is less by more than one-half karat, if made of gold, and less by more than four one-thousandth, if made of silver, than what is shown by said stamp, brand, label or mark. But in case of watch cases and flatware made of gold, the actual fineness of such gold shall not be less by more than three one-thousandth than the fineness indicated by said stamp, brand, label, or mark.

 

Article 188. Substituting and altering trademarks, tradenames, or service marks. - The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from 500 to 2,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon:

1. Any person who shall substitute the tradename or trademark of some other manufacturer or dealer or a colorable imitation thereof, for the tradename or trademark of the real manufacturer or dealer upon any article of commerce and shall sell the same;

2. Any person who shall sell such articles of commerce or offer the same for sale, knowing that the tradename or trademark has been fraudulently used in such goods as described in the preceding subdivision;

3. Any person who, in the sale or advertising of his services, shall use or substitute the service mark of some other person, or a colorable imitation of such mark; or

4. Any person who, knowing the purpose for which the tradename, or trademark, or service mark of a person is to be used, prints, lithographs, or in any way reproduces such tradename, trademark, or service mark, or a colorable imitation thereof, for another person, to enable that other person to fraudulently use such tradename, trademark, or service mark on his own goods or in connection with the sale or advertising of his services.

  • A tradename or trademark as herein used is a word or words, name, title, symbol, emblem, sign or device, or any combination thereof used as an advertisement, sign, label, poster, or otherwise, for the purpose of enabling the public to distinguish the business of the person who owns and uses said tradename or trademark.
  • A service mark as herein used is a mark used in the sale or advertising of services to identify the services of one person and distinguish them from the services of others and includes without limitation the marks, names, symbols, titles, designations, slogans, character names, and distinctive features of radio or other advertising. (As amended by Republic Act No. 172.)

 

Article 189. Unfair competition, fraudulent registration of trademark, tradename or service mark, fraudulent designation of origin, and false description. - The penalty provided in the next proceeding article shall be imposed upon:

1. Any person who, in unfair competition and for the purpose of deceiving or defrauding another of his legitimate trade or the public in general, shall sell his goods giving them the general appearance of goods of another manufacturer or dealer, either as to the goods themselves, or in the wrapping of the packages in which they are contained, or the device or words thereon, or in any other feature of their appearance which would be likely to induce the public to believe that the goods offered are those of a manufacturer or dealer other than the actual manufacturer or dealer, or shall give other persons a chance or opportunity to do the same with a like purpose.

2. Any person who shall affix, apply, annex, or use in connection with any goods or services or any container or containers for goods, a false designation of origin, or any false description or representation, and shall sell such goods or services.

3. Any person who, by means of false or fraudulent representation or declarations, orally or in writing, or by other fraudulent means shall procure from the patent office or from any other office which may hereafter be established by law for the purposes, the registration of a tradename, trademark or service mark or of himself as the owner of such tradename, trademark or service mark or an entry respecting a tradename, trademark or service mark. (As amended by Republic Act No. 172, approved June 20, 1947.)

 

TITLE FIVE Crimes Relative to Opium and Other Prohibited Drugs

Article 190. Possession, preparation and use of prohibited drugs and maintenance of opium dens. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine ranging from 300 to 1,000 pesos shall be imposed upon:

 

1. Anyone who unless lawfully authorized shall possess, prepare, administer, or otherwise use any prohibited drug.

  • "Prohibited drug," as used herein includes opium, cocaine, alpha and beta eucaine, Indian hemp, their derivatives, and all preparations made from them or any of them, and such other drugs, whether natural or synthetic, having physiological action as a narcotic drug.
  • "Opium" embraces every kind, class, and character of opium, whether crude or prepared; the ashes or refuse of the same; narcotic preparations thereof or therefrom; morphine or any alkaloid of opium, preparation in which opium, morphine or any alkaloid of opium, enter as an ingredient, and also opium leaves or wrappings of opium leaves, whether prepared or not for their use.
  • "Indian hemp" otherwise known as marijuana, cannabis, Americana, hashish, bhang, guaza, churruz, and ganjah embraces every kind, class and character of Indian hemp, whether dried or fresh, flowering or fruiting tops of the pistillate plant cannabis satival, from which the resin has not been extracted, including all other geographic varieties whether used as reefers, resin, extract, tincture or in any other form whatsoever.

 

By narcotic drug is meant a drug that produces a condition of insensibility and melancholy dullness of mind with delusions and may be habit-forming.

2. Anyone who shall maintain a dive or resort where any prohibited drug is used in any form, in violation of the law.

 

Article 191. Keeper, watchman and visitor of opium den. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine ranging from 100 to 300 pesos shall be imposed upon:

1. Anyone who shall act as a keeper or watchman of a dive or resort where any prohibited drug is used in any manner contrary to law; and

2. Any person who, not being included in the provisions of the next preceding article, shall knowingly visit any dive or resort of the character referred to above.

 

Article 192. Importation and sale of prohibited drugs. - The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine ranging from 300 to 10,000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall import or bring into the Philippine Islands any prohibited drug.

The same penalty shall be imposed upon any person who shall unlawfully sell or deliver to another prohibited drug

 

Article 193. Illegal possession of opium pipe or other paraphernalia for the use of any prohibited drug. - The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who, not being authorized by law, shall possess any opium pipe or other paraphernalia for smoking, injecting, administering or using opium or any prohibited drug.

The illegal possession of an opium pipe or other paraphernalia for using any other prohibited drug shall be prima facie evidence that its possessor has used said drug.

 

Article 194. Prescribing opium unnecessarily for a patient. - The penalty of prision correccional or a fine ranging from 300 to 10,000 pesos, or both shall be imposed upon any physician or dentist who shall prescribe opium for any person whose physical condition does not require the use of the same.

 

TITLE SIX Crimes Against Public Morals

CHAPTER ONE Gambling and Betting

Article 195. What acts are punishable in gambling. -

(a) The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding two hundred pesos, and, in case of recidivism, the penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from two hundred or six thousand pesos, shall be imposed upon:

 1. Any person other than those referred to in subsections (b) and (c) who, in any manner shall directly, or indirectly take part in any game of monte, jueteng or any other form of lottery, policy, banking, or percentage game, dog races, or any other game or scheme the result of which depends wholly or chiefly upon chance or hazard; or wherein wagers consisting of money, articles of value or representative of value are made; or in the exploitation or use of any other mechanical invention or contrivance to determine by chance the loser or winner of money or any object or representative of value.

 2. Any person who shall knowingly permit any form of gambling referred to in the preceding subdivision to be carried on in any inhabited or uninhabited place of any building, vessel or  other means of transportation owned or controlled by him. If the place where gambling is carried on has the reputation of a gambling place or that prohibited gambling is frequently carried on therein, the culprit shall be punished by the penalty provided for in this article in its maximum period.

(b) The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum degree shall be imposed upon the maintainer, conductor, or banker in a game of jueteng or any similar game

(c) The penalty of prision correccional in its medium degree shall be imposed upon any person who shall, knowingly and without lawful purpose, have in his possession any lottery list, paper or other matter containing letters, signs or symbols which pertain to or are in any manner used in the game of jueteng or any similar game which has taken place or about to take place.

Article 196. Importation, sale and possession of lottery tickets or advertisements. - The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court, shall be imposed upon any person who shall import into the Philippine Islands from any foreign place or port any lottery ticket or advertisement or, in connivance with the importer, shall sell or distribute the same.

  Any person who shall knowingly and with intent to use them, have in his possession lottery tickets or advertisements, or shall sell or distribute the same without connivance with the importer of the same, shall be punished by arresto menor, or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court.

   The possession of any lottery ticket or advertisement shall be prima facie evidence of an intent to sell, distribute or use the same in the Philippine Islands.

Article 197. Betting in sports contests. - The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who shall bet money or any object or article of value or representative of value upon the result of any boxing or other sports contests.

Article 198. Illegal betting on horse races. - The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who except during the period allowed by law, shall bet on horse races. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, under the same circumstances, shall maintain or employ a totalizer or other device or scheme for betting on horse races or realizing any profit therefrom.

   For the purpose of this article, any race held in the same day at the same place shall be held punishable as a separate offense, and if the same be committed by any partnership, corporation or association, the president and the directors or managers thereof shall be deemed to be principals in the offense if they have consented to or knowingly tolerated its commission.

Article 199. Illegal cockfighting. - The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court, shall be imposed upon:

1. Any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, by betting money or other valuable things, or who organizes cockfights at which bets are made, on a day other than those permitted by law.

2. Any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, at a place other than a licensed cockpit.